Literature

This paper presents work done to collect, identify and locate ancient harbours and ports. It is based on a study of existing documentation, i.e. on the writings of many ancient authors and a few modern authors, incl. the Barrington Atlas.

The ancient authors are usually historians, philosophers or poets, but for this work the geographers retained most of our attention: Strabo, Pausanias, Pliny the Elder, Ptolemy, Avienus, Mela and others, some anonymous, who tell about their journeys like ‘Antonine’, ‘Scylax’, ‘Scymnos’, Pythias, Hanno, Odysseus, Aeneas, Jason, Arrian in the Black Sea. In addition to ports mentioned by ancient authors, some ports have been included as mentioned by modern authors: Karl Lehmann-Hartleben (1923), Honor Frost (1963), David Blackman (1982 & 2014), Talbert’s Barrington Atlas (2000), Nic Flemming (1986), Getzel Cohen (1995 & 2006), Micha Tiverios (2008), Helen Dawson (2013), Anton Gordieiev (2015) and some up to date web sites (http://pleiades.stoa.org/ and http://dare.ht.lu.se/).

The references are listed as ancient authors and as modern authors.

The largest ancient contributors to this catalogue are Strabon and the Stadiasmus with over 300 ports mentioned explicitly.

  • Stadiasmus: 383
  • Strabo: 314
  • Antonine: 218
  • Scylax: 176
  • Ptolemy: 149
  • Arrian: 146
  • Pliny the Elder: 138
  • Titus Livius: 100
  • Thucydides: 53
  • Plutarch: 51
  • Pausanias: 40

and for modern authors:

  • Barrington (2000) / PLEIADES (2015): around 3000 coastal sites
  • Ahlfeldt / DARE (2015): around 3000 coastal sites
  • Flemming (2002): 1055
  • Lehmann-Hartleben (1923): 303
  • Gordieiev (2015): 205
  • Mauro (to come): around 200
  • Dawson (2013): 184
  • Carayon (2008): 183
  • Cohen (1995 & 2006): 91
  • Tiverios (2008): 75
  • Hazlitt’s Classical Gazetteer (1851): 68
  • Paulys Realencyclopädie (1893-1980): 67