UK & North Europe

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Ancient port mentioned by ancient author(s)

Ancient port mentioned by modern author(s) only

Potential ancient harbour, from a nautical point of view

NB Ancient name Modern name
1 Tyle, Thule Iceland? Pliny and Strabo, who cite Pytheas (ca 350 BC?), place Thule at 6 navigation days from (Great) Britain, which may be 400-600 nautical miles. Iceland is at 450 miles North of Scotland. The mention of six months long days and nights means a position beyond the Arctic Circle, which corresponds better to Iceland than to the Shetland islands.
1.1 Alta, Bronze Age rock carvings showing many ships
1.2 Aukra, on the isle of Gossa, with hundreds of Mesolithic coastal settlements in Central Norway
1.3 Haugvik, on the isle of Somna, with shipwreck
1.4 Toftevagen, on Halsnoy island, with shipwreck
2 Tanum, Bronze Age rock carvings showing many ships
2.1 Torsbo, near Kville, Bronze Age rock carvings showing many ships
2.2 Baltia? Norrköping, Bronze Age rock carvings showing many ships
2.3 Björke, with shipwreck
3 export of amber to the Black Sea, on R Chesinos, Chesynus Daugmale, on R Daugava, Dvina, Düna
4 Basileia, Basilia, Ile Royale, between R Vistula and R Chronus Sambia, Samland? famous for amber exported via R Vistula and R Neman
4.1 Neolithic settlements at Lietzow, on Rügen island
4.2 Stralsund, with logboat wrecks
4.3 Varpelev, with logboat wreck, on R Tryggevaelde
4.4 Nydam, with famous shipwreck
4.5 Hjortspring, with famous shipwreck
4.6 Submerged neolithic settlement at Tybrind Vig, on Fyn island
5 Abalus insula, Saxonum insulae? near Elektrides insulae? Isle of Helgoland? Near Frisian islands?
6 Mararmano, Manarmani in The Netherlands between R Vidrus (R Oude Rijn?) and R Amisius (R Eems), possibly at Hoge Berg near Den Burg, on the isle of Texel that was still connected to the mainland
6.1 Wieringermeer, near Den Oever, with logboat wreck
6.1 Pesse, world’s oldest shipwreck
6.3 Kadoelerveld, near Kraggenburg, inside a modern polder, with logboat wreck
7 Uitgeest-Groot Dorregeest
8 Flevum Velsen, west of Amsterdam, on R Oer-IJ
9 Lugdunum Batavorum, Brittenburg, Calla, at the ancient outlet of R Vidrus? Roman fort still visible in the 17th c. at LLW, but now submerged offshore Katwijk, near the outlet of R Oude Rijn (R Old Rhine) which was the northern limit of the Roman empire and was navigable over a long distance, with many river ports
10 Praetorium Agrippinae Valkenburg, Marktveld
11 Matilo, at northern end of Fossa Corbulonis, Corbulo canal between R Rhine and R Maas Leiden, Roomburg
12 Albaniana Alphen a/d Rijn
13 Nigrum Pullum Zwammerdam
14 Laurium Woerden, Kruittorenweg & Havenstraat
15 Fletio Utrecht, Hoge Woerd
16 Fectio Vechten
17 Levefanum Wijk bij Duurstede
18 Mannaricium Maurik
19 Carvo, Carvone Kesteren
20 Castra Herculis Arnhem, Meinerswijk
21 Carvium Bijlandse Waard
22 Castra Vetera, Colonia Ulpia Trajana Xanten, Archäologischen Park
23 Ceuclum Roman bridge at Cuijk
24 Oppidium Batavorum Nijmegen, Hunnerpark
25 Noviomagus Nijmegen, Maasplein
26 Grinnes, Grinnibus Rossum
26.1 Hardinxfeld-Giessendam, on R Beneden Merwede, one of the Rhine delta branches
27 Forum Hadriani, on Fossa Corbulonis Park Arentsburgh, at Voorburg, on R Vliet
28 Ockenburgh
29 at southern end of Fossa Corbulonis Naaldwijk, Roman fort & naval base
30 Flenio, Flenium Vlaardingen?
31 Helinio, at outlet of R Maas submerged offshore of Oostvoorne, at outlet of R Maas, Meuse
32 “Oude Wereld” submerged offshore of Goedereede, on the isle of Goeree
33 Ganuenta submerged at 1.5 km NW of Colijnsplaat, votive altars to Nehalennia goddess, on R Oosterschelde, Eastern Scheldt
34 Romanorum portus “De Roompot” submerged offshore Domburg on the isle of Walcheren
34.1 Roman dike & fireplace at Serooskerke, on the isle of Walcheren
34.2 Ellewoutsdijk, on R Westerschelde, Scheldt
35 Rodanum? Aardenburg
36 Maldegem-Vake
37 Roman villa at Groot Handelsdok, Bruges, Brugge, on R Reie
38 Wenduine
39 Aldenburgensis Roman fort on the sea side at Oudenburg, on ancient R Kene, Keignaert
39.1 Stene, near Ostend
39.2 Roman dike at Raversijde, near Ostend
39.3 R Isera Nieuwpoort, on R IJzer, Yzer
40 Pritani, Prettanoi, Prettanides, Brettannikai nesoi, Britannia, meant to include both Albion & Ierne British Isles, including Great Britain & Ireland
41  Orcades insulae Orkney islands, North Scotland
41.1 Craig Phadrig oppidum
41.2 Cullykhan oppidum
42 Devana, Devoni, on R Deva Aberdeen, on R Don
42.1 Roman camp at Raedykes
42.2 Roman camp at Dun, on Montrose Basin
43 Laws Hill, near Monifieth,
oppidum on Firth of Tay
43.1 R Tava Roman camp at Invergowrie, on Firth of Tay
43.2 R Tava Roman camp near Saint Madoes, on Firth of Tay
44 Horrea Classis, on R Tava Roman fort and naval base at Carpow, on Firth of Tay
44.1 Norman’s Law oppidum on Firth of Tay
45 Velunia, Veluniate, on R Bodotria Carriden House, at the eastern end of Antonine’s wall, on Firth of Forth
46 R Bodotria Cramond, on Firth of Forth
46.1 Arthur’s Seat, Edimburgh, oppidum
47 R Bodotria Inveresk, on Firth of Forth
48 Tweedmouth, on R Tweed
48.1 Kippy Heugh oppidum
49 Segedunum Wallsend, on R Tyne
50 Arbeia South Shields, at the eastern end of Hadrien’s wall, near Newcastle
51 possible lighthouse at
Huntcliff
52 possible lighthouse at
Goldsborough
53 Dictium? Whitby
54 possible lighthouse at
Ravenscar
55 possible lighthouse at
Scarborough
56 Portus Felix possible lighthouse at Filey
Brigg
57 Gabrantiucorum portuosus sinus, Praesidium, Praetorium Bridlington? with Roman villas at Rudston & Harpham Grange
58 Petuaria on R Abus Brough on R Humber, Roman naval base
59 Faxfleet  on R Humber
60 Winteringham  on R Humber
61 Gibraltar Point, near Skegness
61.1 Sleaford, on R Slea
61.2 Durobrivae Water Newton, on R Nene
61.3 Roman fort at Longthorpe, on R Nene
61.4 Bronze Age settlement at Must Farm
61.5 Stonea, oppidum, in the Fens
61.6 Denver, on R Ouse
62 Holme next the Sea, with possible lighthouse at Thornham
63 Branodunum Brancaster
63.1 Holkham oppidum
63.2 Warham oppidum
64 Caister on Sea, North of Great Yarmouth, might have had a Roman port?
65 Gariannonum, Gariannum, on R Gariennus Burgh Castle, West of Great
Yarmouth, on R Yare-Waveney
66 Wenhaston, on R Blyth
66.1 Sitomagus, Senomagus? East Green, on R Hundred
66.2 Roman villa at Knodishall, on R Hundred
66.3 Roman villa at Farnham, near R Alde
67 Walton Castle, North of
Felixstowe, now submerged offshore
68 Ad Ansam near Higham, on R Stour
68.1 Roman villa at Little Oakley
69 port of Camulodunum Fingringhoe Wick, with several Roman villas, near Colchester, on R Colne
69.1 Roman villa at West Mersea
70 Heybridge-Maldon, on R
Blackwater, might have had a Roman port?
71 Othona portus Bradwell on Sea, South of
Colchester
72 Hadleigh with possible lighthouse
73 Londinium, Lindonium London river port on the Thames, near Regis House
74 Noviomagus Cantiacorum Dartford
74.1 Roman villa at Tenters Hill
Field, Dartford
74.2 Roman villa at Wilmington,
Dartford
74.3 Roman villa at Darenth, near
Dartford
75 Vagniacis Springhead, near Southfleet
76 Durobrivae Rochester, on R Medway
77 Durolevum Ospringe, South of Faversham,
with several Roman villas
78 Regulbium possible lighthouse at Reculver, West of Margate
79 Tanatus insula, Toliapis? Taniatide? Isle of Thanet, near Ramsgate, now connected to mainland
79.1 Cliffsend Farm, with Bronze Age settlement, possible landing place of Caesar in 54 BC at Pegwell Bay
80 Rutupiae, Ritupium Roman naval base at Richborough, probable first landing place of Romans in 43 AD
81 Portus Dubris, home port of
Classis Britannica fleet
Dover: port at the outlet of R
Dour, with its two famous ancient lighthouses
81.1 Roman villa at Folkestone
82 Portus Lemanis Stutfall Castle, near Lympne
castle
83 Mutuantonis? Hastings oppidum
84 Anderidos, Anderitum Pevensey
84.1 Roman villa at Eastbourne
84.2 Preston Court, Beddingham, on R Ouse
84.3 The Caburn oppidum
84.4 Mutuantonis? Lewes, on R Ouse
84.5 Whitehawk Hill oppidum, Brighton
84.6 Hollingbury Castle oppidum,
Brighton
84.7 Preston Park, Brighton
85 Novus portus Southwick? possibly at outlet of R Adur, with a Roman villa
85.1 Cissbury Ring oppidum
85.2 Littlehampton
85.3 Roman villa at Arundel, on R Arun
86 Roman villa at Sidlesham
87 Villa Regis Cogidubni, port of
Noviomagus Regnorum, on R Trisantonis
Roman palace at Fishbourne, near Chichester, on R Arun
88 Bosham Harbour
89 Hayling island
89.1 Roman villa at Langstone
89.2 Roman villa at Havant
90 Portus Adurni, Ardaoni, Magnus
portus
Portchester Castle, Roman naval base
91 Vectis, Vecta insula Isle of Wight, probably Newport, with Roman villa on R Medina
92 Roman villa at Brading, on the isle of Wight, now inland
93 Oppidum at Ventnor, on the isle of Wight
93.1 Bouldnor Cliff, submerged Mesolithic settlement, on the isle of Wight
94 Roman villa at Gurnard, on the isle of Wight
95 Clausentum? Bitterne Manor House, near
Southampton
96 Onna? Nursling
97 Major oppidum at Hengistbury Head
98 Hamworthy, near Poole
98.1 Roman villa at Brenscombe, on Purbeck island
98.2 Roman villa at Bucknowle farm, with shale quarries (ball clay, marble & black shale), on Purbeck island
98.3 Roman villa at East Creech, on Purbeck island
98.4 Port of Durnovaria Wareham, on R Frome
98.5 Bindon hill oppidum and Roman villa, between Lulworth Cove and Mupe Bay
99 Durnovaria Dorchester, Roman Town House, on R Frome
99.1 Dunum? Maiden castle oppidum, near
Dorchester
99.2 Chalbury oppidum
99.3 Roman villa at Preston
99.4 Roman temple at Jordan hill
100 Roman villa at Newberry road, Weymouth
101 Vindelis, Vindilis? Isle of Portland, near Chesil
beach, with Culverwell Mesolithic site
101.1 The Cobb, at Lyme Regis, is said to be on top of a Roman structure (?)
101.2 Roman villa at Holcombe
102 Moridunum? Roman villa and fortlet at Seaton “Honeyditches”, on R Axe
102.1 Blackbury Castle oppidum
102.2 Roman villa at Otterhead, near Budleigh Salterton, on R Otter
102.3 Woodbury castle oppidum
103 Port of Isca Dumnoniorum, on R Isca Port and fortlet at Topsham on R Exe
103.1 Isca Dumnoniorum, on R Isca Roman fort at Exeter, on R Exe
103.2 Milber Down oppidum, near R Teign
103.3 Moor Sand, near Salcombe
104 Bolt Tail oppidum, near Hope
104.1 R Aramis, Aranus, Armis? (export of tin) Outlet of R Erme
104.2 Holbury oppidum, on R Erme
104.3 Mount Batten, near Plymouth, on R Plym (export of tin)
104.4 R Tamarus, Tamaris Roman fort at Calstock, on R
Tamar (export of tin)
104.5 Rame Head oppidum
104.6 Hall Rings oppidum, near R West Looe
105 Roman fort at Lostwithiel, near Restormel Castle, on R Fowey (export of tin)
105.1 Castle Dore oppidum
105.2 Castle Gotha oppidum, and Roman fortlet in the area near St Austell
105.3 Black Head oppidum
105.4 The Dodman oppidum, near Gorran
105.5 Dingerein castle oppidum
106 Carlidnack oppidum
106.1 Port Navas, near Gweek, on R Helford (export of tin?)
106.2 Gweek oppidum, on R Helford (export of tin)
106.3 Grambla oppidum, near Gweek, on R Helford
106.4 Halliggye oppidum, near R Helford
106.5 Chynhalls Point oppidum
106.6 Lankidden oppidum
106.7 Kynance Gate oppidum
107 Ictis insula, Mictis, near
Belerium, Bolerion Prom. (export of tin)
St Michael’s Mount, Marazion, probably a major port for exporting tin extracted by streaming in the hills of Cornwall
107.1 Treryn Dinas oppidum
107.2 Maen castle oppidum
107.3 Kenidjack castle oppidum
108 Silina insula, Sicdelis Isles of Scilly, west of Cornwall ; some believe these are the Cassiterides islands, but no tin is mined here ; many megaliths are found there
108.1 Gurnard’s Head, Trereen Dinas oppidum
108.2 Hayle oppidum, on R Hayle (export of tin?)
108.3 Crane castle oppidum
108.4 Roman villa at Magor Farm,
Illogan
108.5 Nance oppidum, near Portreath
109 Penhale Point oppidum
109.1 Kelsey Head oppidum
109.2 Trevelgue Head oppidum, Porth
island near Newquay
109.3 Griffin’s Point oppidum
109.4 Redcliff castle oppidum
109.5 Tregolds oppidum, near Padstow, on R Camel
109.6 The Rumps oppidum
109.7 Tregeare oppidum
110 Tintagel oppidum
110.1 Bossiney oppidum
110.2 Boscastle oppidum, on R Valency
110.3 St Gennys Roman fortlet, near Crackington Haven
111 Morwenstow Roman fortlet
112 Clovelly Dikes Roman fortlet
112.1 Hillsborough oppidum, near
Ilfracombe
112.2 Voley Castle oppidum, on R Heddon
112.3 Beacon Castle oppidum, on R
Heddon
112.4 possible lighthouse at Martinhoe Roman fortlet, near outlet of R Heddons
113 Countisbury castle, on Wind Hill, and Myrtleberry castles, oppidums, near outlet of R Lyn
114 Old Burrow Roman fortlet at
Countisbury
115 Oppidum at Grabbist Hill, near Dunster
115.1 Bat’s Castle oppidum
115.2 Trendle Ring oppidum
115.3 Dowsborough oppidum
116 R Uxela Combwich, might have had a Roman port on R Parrett?
116.1 Brent Knoll oppidum
116.2 Roman temple and oppidum at Brean Down, near outlet of R Axe
116.3 Worlebury oppidum
117 Cadbury Camp oppidum
117.1 Stokeleigh Camp oppidum, on R Avon
117.2 Abona, on R Abona Sea Mills, on R Avon
117.3 Roman villa at Kings Weston, on R Avon
117.4 Haresfield Beacom oppidum
117.5 Roman villa at Great Witcombe
118 Glevum Roman fort at Gloucester
118.1 Roman temple and oppidum at Lydney
118.2 Roman villa at The Chesters,
Woolaston
118.3 Bulwarks Camp oppidum, on R Wye
118.4 Roman villa at Boughspring,
Tidenham, on R Wye
118.5 Roman camp at Killcrow Hill,
Sudbrook
119 Sudbrook oppidum and Roman port, on R Severn
119.1 Venta Silurum Caerwent
120 Isca Silurum, on R Isca Caerleon, on R Usk
120.1 Tredegar oppidum, on R Usk
121 Tamion? Tamium? Cardiff
121.1 Roman villa at Llandough, The Vale of Glamorgan
122 Roman villa at Cold Knap,
Barry
122.1 Nash Point Camp oppidum
122.2 Dunraven oppidum
123 Roman villa at Dan-y-Graig,
Porthcawl, near Bridgend
124 Nido, Nidum Neath, on R Neath
124.1 Roman villa at Oystermouth
Church, Mumbles
124.2 The Knave oppidum
124.3 Burry Holms oppidum
125 Leucarum, on R Leuca Loughor, on R Loughor
125.1 Roman villa at Abercyfor
126 Moridunum, on R Tuvius Carmarthen, on R Towy
127 Roman villa at Trelissey, near Amroth
127.1 Greenala oppidum
127.2 Flimston Castle oppidum
127.3 Victoria Bay oppidum, near
Marloes
127.4 Skomer island oppidum
127.5 Tower Point oppidum
127.6 Haverfordwest, on R Western Cleddau
127.7 Porth y Rhaw, near Solva Harbour
127.8 Castell Heinif oppdum, near
Porthclais harbour
127.9 Saint David’s Head oppidum, near Porthmeigan beach
128 Pen Dinas Lochtyn oppidum
128.1 Castell Bach oppidum
128.2 R Stuctia Roman fort at Trawsgoed, on R Ystwyth
128.3 R Stuctia Roman villa at Abermagwr
128.4 Pen Dinas, Dinas Maelor,
Ceredigion, oppidum
128.5 Roman fort at Pen Llwyn, Dyfed, on R Rheidol
129 Erglodd Roman fortlet, on R Leri
130 Maglona? Cefn-Caer Farm, Roman fort near Pennal, on R Dyfi
130.1 Castell y Gaer
131 Birthdir Roman fort, on R
Mawddach
131.1 Moel Goedog oppidum, near outlet of R Dwyryd
132 R Tisobis Roman villa at Tremadoc, on R Dwyryd
133 Castell Odo oppidum
134 possible lighthouse at Dinas
Dinlle
135 Segontium possible lighthouse at Caernarfon
135.1 Dinas Dinorwig oppidum
135.2 Caer Leb oppidum
135.3 Castell Bryn Gwyn oppidum
136 Aberffraw
137 Mona insula possible lighthouse at Caer y Twr on Holyhead Mountain, oppidum
138 Mona insula Caer Gybi Roman fort
139 Mona insula Pen Bryn-Yr-Eglwys
139.1 Din Lligwy oppidum
140 Llanfihangel Din Sylwy, Bwrdd Arthur
141 Canovium, Conovium Caerhun Roman fort, on R Conwy
141.1 Castell Caer Seion, Lleion,
Mynydd-Y-Dref, oppidum on Conwy Mountain
141.2 Great Orme Bronze Age copper mine
141.3 Bryn Euryn oppidum
142 Varis, Varae? Saint Asaph, Flintshire, on R
Elwy
142.1 Prestatyn, might have had a Roman
port?
143 Deva Victrix, on R Deva Chester, with rare remains of a Roman quaywall on R Dee
143.1 Heronbridge, on R Dee
143.2 Fort Burton oppidum, on R Dee
144 Meols
144.1 Roman fortlet at Ince on R Mersey
144.2 Helsby Hill oppidum
144.3 Condate Northwich, on R Weaver
145 R Seteia Wilderspool, on R Mersey
146 R Belisama Walton le Dale, on R Ribble & R Darwen
147 Setantiorum portus Possibly submerged North of
Fleetwood?
148 Calunium Lancaster Roman fort, on R Lune
149 Alauna? Alone? Watercrook Roman fort
150 Monaoeda, Monobia, Manavia insula Isle of Man
150.1 Cronk ny Merriu oppidum, on the isle of Man
150.2 Close ny Chollagh oppidum, on the isle of Man
151 Glannoventa, Glannaventa,
Glannibanta, Cantiventi
Ravenglass Roman fort and naval base
152 Itunocelum, Tunnocelum Roman fort near Beckermet-Calder Bridge
153 Gabrosentum Parton Roman fort, near Moresby
154 Magis Burrow Walls Roman fort, near Workington
155 Alauna, Alione Roman fort at Maryport, with many fortlets on the Firth of Solway
156 Bibra, Bribra Beckfoot Roman fort, on the Firth of Solway
157 Portus Trucculensis? Angerton, Kirkbride, on the Firth of Solway
158 Maia, Mais Bowness on Solway, Roman fort at the West end of Hadrien’s wall
159 Coggabata, Congavata, Concavata Drumburgh Roman fort, on the Firth of Solway
159.1 Aballava Burgh by Sands
159.2 Luguvalium, on R Ituna Carlisle, on R Eden
159.3 Roman camp at Ruthwell, on the Firth of Solway
160 R Noouius Caerlaverock Roman fort, and Roman camp at Ward Law, and oppidum on R Nith
161 Dalbeattie, might have had a
Roman port on R Urr?
162 Loucovium? On R Deva Glenlochar Roman fort, on R Dee
162.1 Borness Batteries oppidum, near Brighouse Bay
162.2 Castle Haven oppidum
163 Gatehouse of Fleet Roman fortlet
164 R Iena? Newton Stewart Roman fortlet, on R Cree
164.1 R Abravanus? Bladnoch Roman fortlet, on R Bladnoch
164.2 Dinnans oppidums
164.3 Burrow Head oppidum
164.4 Barsalloch Point oppidum
164.5 Stair Haven oppidum, near Luce Bay
165 Glenluce Roman camp
165.1 Doon Castle oppidum, near Ardwell Bay
165.2 Larbrax oppidum
166 Rerigonium? Stranraer
166.1 Teroy oppidum
167 Girvan Mains Roman camps
168 Roman fort at Lurg Moor
168.1 Roman fort at Bishopton
168.2 Clotagenium Old Kilpatrick, at the West end of Antonine’s wall
168.3 Sheep Hill oppidum
168.4 Carman oppidum, near R Leven
168.5 Dunagoil oppidum
169  Clota in Hiverione Isle of Arran, in the Firth of
Clyde near Glasgow
169.1 Carradale Point oppidum
169.2 Dun Skeig oppidum
170 Aebudae insulae Port Ellen, on isle of Islay,
southern Hebrides
170.1 Dunadd, on R Add
171 Erin, Ierne, Ivernia, Hibernia, Hivernione, Insula Sacra Ireland, with many hillforts on the south, west and north coasts, most of them are small and on promontory cliff-tops without harbour ;
We selected the ones with a nautical shelter
171.01 Drumanagh, oppidum
171.02 Silumnus, Limnos insula? Lambay island, oppidum
171.03 Andros insula Howth Head, oppidum
171.04 Dalkey island
171.05 Ballybuckley, on R Slaney
171.06 An Duinin, Ballymore West, oppidum, near Ventry Harbour
171.07 Lohercannan, Knockanacuig, oppidum
171.08 Barrow , oppidum
171.09 Knockadoon Fort, Clenagh, oppidum
171.10 Doontrusk, oppidum
171.11 Knoxspark, oppidum, on R Ballysadare
171.12 Dungravenen, Townparks, oppidum, on R Erne
171.13 Doire Leathan, Derrylahan, oppidum
171.14 Cashel, Gort An Choirce, oppidum, on R Glenna
171.15 Tullynavinn, oppidum, on R Roe
171.16 Lurigethan, Layd, oppidum, between R Dall and R Waterfoot
171.17 Knockdhu, Carncastle, oppidum
171.18 Lyles Hill, Ballymartin, oppidum
171.19 Cathedral Hill, Downpatrick, oppidum, on R Quoile
171.20 Knockagh, oppidum, and two other forts, on R Castletown