NB: the definitions provided below are no more than the most probable (and schematic) definitions!
Some are described in:
KOWALSKI, JM. (2012) « Navigation et Géographie dans l’antiquité Gréco-Romaine – La terre vue de la mer », éd. Picard, Paris.
ARNAUD, P. (2015) « Entre mer et rivière : les ports fluvio-maritimes de Méditerranée ancienne », Colloque ‘Les ports dans l’espace méditerranéen antique. Narbonne et les systèmes portuaires fluvio-lagunaires’, Espace Capdeville, Montpellier 22/23 mai 2014.
ARNAUD, P., (2015), « Inscriptions and port societies: evidence, “Analyse du discours”, silences, portscape … », International Conference on Roman Port Societies through the evidence of inscriptions, organized by Pascal Arnaud and Simon Keay as part of the ERC Advanced Grant funded Rome’s Mediterranean Ports Project in conjunction with the British School at Rome, 29-30 January 2015.
BONNIER, A. (2008) « Epineia kai limenes: the relationship between harbours and cities in ancient greek texts », Opuscula, 1, 2008, Stockholm.
Oikoumene (Latin: ecumene; FR: monde habité; GB: inhabited world): initially described as a circular island in the middle of an external ocean.
Periodos (Latin: mappa mundi; FR: mappemonde; GB: world map): initially designating a world map of the entire oikoumene, and later sometimes used to designated a round the world trip (acc. to Marcotte, 2000).
Periegesis (Latin: tabula, forma; FR: carte; GB: map): designates a regional map (acc. to Marcotte, 2000).
Periplous (Latin: stadiasmus; FR: portulan; GB: portolan): description of the world based on an itinerary, usually along the coastline, on board a ship or on foot (acc. to Marcotte, 2000).Porthmos, Stenon (Latin: fretum; FR: chenal; GB: channel): navigable route in a narrow sea way, usually with buoyage.
Chantaki (Latin: fossa; FR: canal; GB: canal): artificial waterway for navigation or irrigation.
Ankyrobolion (Latin: statio; FR: mouillage peu profond ; GB: shallow anchorage): shallow anchorage preferably on sandy bottom providing good holding for anchors.
Limen (Latin: portus, statio; FR: rade, havre, abri; GB: roadstead, harbour): sheltered area for ships, in most weather conditions. Note that a less sheltered place would be called Salos or an even less sheltered place Aigialos. However, in imperial times, ‘limen’ gradually changed to also designate an ‘ormos’.
Hormos, Ormos (Latin: portus; FR: port; GB: port): place with moorings where ships can load and unload. A good port will enable operations independently of wave and current conditions.
Epineïon (Latin: portus; FR: avant-port; GB: fore-port): port disconnected from the city and used for war ships (e.g. Piraeus/Athens and Ostia/Rome).
Naustathmos (Latin: navale; FR: base navale; GB: naval base, naval station): harbour for war ships.
Limen kleistos (Latin: portus; FR: port fermé; GB: closed port): intra-muros port connected to the city, protected by the city walls and with a narrowed entrance closable by means of doors and/or a chain.
Cothon, Kothon (Latin: cothone; FR: cothon; GB: cothon): used since antiquity to refer to the circular port of Carthage. Nowadays, the specialists of harbour archaeology agree that this term can be associated to a dug harbour-basin of any shape connected to the sea through a channel (Carayon, 2005).
Emporion (Latin: emporio; FR: ville portuaire; GB: port of trade): maritime city with commercial port and trade facilities.
Choma, Teichos (Latin: moles; FR: jetée; GB: jetty): massive vertical structure built out into the sea (see Strabo, Geogr. 5.4.6 describing the Puteoli arched moles as a ‘chomata’). The word ‘mole’ is still used both in FR and GB by archaeologists for a massive structure separating two bodies of water, like a breakwater, a jetty or a causeway.
Prokomia, Prokumatia (Latin: moles; FR: brise-lames; GB: breakwater): massive structure built out into the sea to protect a port from wave attack (see Flavius, Jewish War 1.412 & Jewish Ant. 15.334 describing the Caesarea mole: a distinction is made between the detached breakwater as a ‘Prokomia’ and the main breakwater with a quaywall on the inner side as a ‘teichos’).
No Greek word? (Latin: brachium; FR: jetée; GB: jetty): the Latin word stands for ‘arm’ and is used in ancient port descriptions to designate a breakwater with a curved plan-shape (typically at Portus).
Promoulon (Latin: docryllum, crepido; FR: quai; GB: quay; US: dock): structure to load and unload ships that can be docked and moored on only one side, usually made of blocks of stone or masonry.
Apovathra (Latin: xxxx; FR: appontement, débarcadère; GB: wharf, landing stage; US: pier, landing stage): structure to load and unload ships, usually on piles (e.g. finger pier).
xxxxxxx (Latin: xxxx; FR: appontement; GB: pier): wharf with light structure, typically used for walkways and pleasure piers.
xxxxxxx (Latin: xxxx; FR: darse, bassin portuaire; GB: dock, harbour basin): enclosed area of water used for loading, unloading, building or repairing ships.
Diolkos (Latin: clivum?; FR: cale de halage; GB: slipway, ways): ramp sloping toward the water on which boats can be hauled in and out of the water.
xxxxx (Latin: horrea; FR: entrepôts; GB: warehouses): public warehouses used to store grain and many other types of consumables.
Neorion, Neoria (Latin: navale, navalia; FR: arsenal, chantier naval; GB: dockyard, shipyard): place for ship building and repair.
Nesoikos, Neosoikoi (Latin: navale, navalia; FR: loge, hangar à bateau; GB: shipshed, boathouse): shed for sheltering a boat, usually built partly over water.
xxxxx (Latin: piscina; FR: basin d’aquaculture; GB: artificial fish pond, fish pool): used for breeding fish, usually a structure built out from the shoreline into the sea with marine concrete, or cut into shoreline formations of soft bedrock (acc. to Oleson, 2014).
No Greek word (Latin: caementa; FR: agrégats; GB: rubble aggregate): decimetre-sized chunks of rock (preferably Puteoli volcanic tuff, but possibly calcarenite) incorporated with pozzolanic mortar (materia) made with lime (calx) to form ancient Roman concrete (structura) (acc. to Oleson, 2014).
Ammokonia, Konis (Latin: pulvis; FR: pouzzolane; GB: pozzolana): powdery, pumiceous, incoherent volcanic ash, found in the Campi Flegrei volcanic district, therefore also called Puteolanus pulvis in reference to the nearby city of Puteoli (modern Pozzuoli) (acc. to Oleson, 2014).
No Greek word (Latin: carbunculo, structura; FR: béton hydraulique, béton maritime; GB: marine concrete, marine concrete): is made by replacing some of the cement in a concrete mix with activated aluminium silicates (pozzolana) to activate cement setting in wet condition or underwater and further protect hardened concrete from chemical attack, inducing an extraordinary longevity in seawater, not yet fully understood (acc. to Oleson, 2014).
No Greek word (Latin: pila; FR: massif de béton; GB: mass of concrete): large mass of concrete, often a cube or rectangular prism in shape (acc. to Oleson, 2014). Concrete is poured into wooden formworks, possibly underwater with marine concrete.
Kibotion (Latin: arca; FR: coffrage; GB: formwork): structure, usually made of timber, into which concrete or similar materials are poured.
No Greek word? (Latin: arcae duplices, septione; FR: batardeau; GB: cofferdam): watertight structure, usually made of sheet piling, that encloses an area under water that can be pumped dry, in order to enable construction work to be carried out “in the dry”.