Ancient Ports in the Indian Ocean & Gulf

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Ancient port mentioned by ancient author(s)

Ancient port mentioned by modern author(s) only

Potential ancient harbour, from a nautical point of view

near Bandar-e Nakhilu?

NB Ancient name Modern name
3709 Prasum prom. Cabo Delgado? in front of the Commore islands
3710 Quiloa Kilwa Kisiwani island & Songo Mnara island, this area of Swahili culture might be beyond the southern limit of pre-islamic trading ports as archaeology has not (yet?) found any older artefacts
3711 Rhapta, Rapta, capital city of the country of Azania, Panchea, Zingion archaeo finds at Mkukutu, Kibiti (Chami, 1998) and Kivinja, on R Rufiji, but Dar es Salaam remains a good candidate if Menuthias is Pemba island
3711.1 Mafiaco insula, Rhapta?? in country of Azania Bwejuu island, Boydu Island, in front of Ras Kisimani on Mafia island
3712 Mafiaco insula, in country of Azania Ukunju cave, near Kua, on Juani-Mafia island
3713 Menuthias insula, Island of the Sun, Panara, in country of Azania Unguja Ukuu Kaepwani, on Unguja island (Zanzibar) ; note that Ptolemy means Madagascar when speaking about Menuthias insula
3713.1 Menuthias insula, Island of the Sun, Panara, in country of Azania Machaga cave, on Unguja island (Zanzibar) ; note that Ptolemy means Madagascar when speaking about Menuthias insula
3713.2 Menuthias insula, Island of the Sun, Panara, in country of Azania Kuumbi cave, on Unguja island (Zanzibar) ; note that Ptolemy means Madagascar when speaking about Menuthias insula
3714 Pemba island, is also a candidate for Menuthias insula
3715 Pyraloi, Puralaon insulae, in country of Azania Lamu archipelago, with Manda, Pate & Lamu islands
3715.1 Toniki, Tonice Prom., in country of Azania Burgabo, Burgao? on R Burgabo
3715.2 Gondal? Kismayo, Kismaayo, near Goobweyn on R Juba
3716 Nicon, Nikon, in country of Azania Barawa, Brava?
3717 Essina, Issina, in country of Azania Merka, Marka? Gendershe, Gonderscia?
3718 Sarapion Prom., in country of Azania, with Ptolemy’s Great shore, Small shore, Notou Keras and Apokopa bay located within the ca. 1100 km stretch north of this place Mogadishu? Warsheikh?
3719 Opone: Pwenet, Pwene, Pouen, Opone, Ophir?? Land of Punt? Zingis Prom.? south of which is the Zingium, Zyngion sea Ras Hafun, Xaafuun, with bay of Khor Hordiyo, Hurdiyo? Other possible locations for Punt are Mundus, Mosylium and Adulis
3720 Pano, Panes Ras Binna? now silted up
3721 Cape Tabae, Tabai Tohen, Tooxin? where no shelter is found today due to sedimentation, but close enough of cape Gardafui to fit PME’s description, 8 km north of mighty Ras Shenarif, Chenarif, Shannaqiif
3722 Dioscoridis insula, Panchaia, Kokkonatou islands, Fortunate islands Isle of Socotra, Suqutra
3722.1 Hoq cave on Socotra island, with many inscriptions and a drawing of a ship
3723 Hajriya, Tamrida Hadiboh on Socotra island
3724 Kosh on Socotra island
3725 Aromaton Emporion, Tera Aromatica, Aromatifera Regio, Market and Cape of Spices, near Akroterion Aromaton, Cap des Aromates, Notou Keras? Probably Daamo, Damo, 5 km west of Cape Guardafui, Ras Asir, Ras Caseyr
3726 Acana, Acannae, Daphnon Magnum, Psygmus, Psyglatus, Cinocephali waters, R Elephas? Ras Alula, Bandar Ululah, Caluula
3727 Cape Elephas, Elephantas Ras Felug, Filuk, Filuch, el-Fil
3728 Kobe, Cobe Habo, Xabo, Abot fort? on Khor Filuk
3729 Daphnon Parvum Bandar Muriyeh, Murcaayo
3730 Port of Botiala Qoori, near Qandala, Candala, near R Tokwina
3730.1 Tapatege, Tabatege Qandala, Candala?
3730.2 Nilopotamion Bacaad? a delta that ressembles the Nile Delta
3731 Mosylium, Mosylon Emporion, below the Karkaar frankincense production area Bosaso, Bandar Kasim? Another possible location is Ceelayo, Elayo, Elayu, 33 km west of Bosaso, with black volcanic cliffs that may have been taken for a promontory. Also possible is Ras Hantara, Aantaara, 45 km NE of Bosasso, below the Karkaar frankincense production area
3732 Mundus, Mondou Emporion, below the Cal Madow and Daallo frankincense production area, Pythangelu Limen? Land of Punt? Ophir?? Heis, Xiis, with anchorage at Salweyn behind Heis island. Other possible locations for Punt are Adulis and Opone
3733 Khor Shoreh, Shoora
3733.1 Malao? Siyara, Siyaara
3733.2 Eil Geradi, Ceel Gerdi, Neolithic settlement
3734 Malao, Leontoscope? Berbera, can be seen as the port of Hargeisa (inland) where Neolithic cave paintings have been found
3734.1 Bulhar, on R Issutuggan
3735 Avalitae, Avalites, Abalites, Aualis Zeila, Saylac, in Somalia, 50 km East of Djibouti. Avalites seems to be located with some certainty at Zeila (in Somalia) on a former island protected by a sand spit
3736 Port of Isis Djibouti? The Port of Isis is at ten days of navigation under oar (500-1000 km) from Adulis according to Pliny, which leads near Djibouti (at 660 km) with its two islands located just in front of the port, as indicated by Pliny
3737 Guinni Koma, ile du Diable, inside Ghoubbet el-Karab, Monfreid’s Gubet Karab
3738 Obock
3739 Khor Omeira, Monfreid’s Kor Omeira
3740 Ras Imran
3741 Eudaimon Arabia (Prosperous Arabia), Arabia emporion, Porto, Adane, Athenae Aden
3742 Mesala al-‘Asala, am-‘Asala
3743 PM: Saba, Sheba, Mariaba, ancient capital city of Sabean kingdom, not to be confused with Pliny’s Sabota, ancient capital of Hadramaut PM: Marib, not to be confused with Shabwa located 182 km further east
3744 Abisama, Ambisama, Ebisma Ras Sanbah?
3745 Bal Haf, Balihaf
3746 Qana, Cana, Qani, Kane, port of the Hadramawites Husn al-Ghurab (“Crow’s fort”, Fort du Corbeau), at Mawiyat, near Bir Ali
3746.1 Orneon insula Geziret Sikha island, mentioned by PME 27
3746.2 Troullas insula Geziret Barraqah island, mentioned by PME 27
3747 Trulla, Troulla, Tralla portus? Ras Majdahah
3748 Tritus, Tretos portus? Khor al-Mukalla
3749 al-Shirh
3750 Ras Sharma
3751 Thialemath? al-Musayn’a
3751.1 Hayrig, on R wadi Tikar
3752 Ras Sharwayn
3753 Port of Syagros? Possible shelter at Khaisat, at outlet of R wadi Radhayt
3754 Syagrus, Syagros, Suagros Prom. at western end of sinus Sachalites, Khalfat, on wadi Khalfut, North of Ras Fartak
3755 Ausara, Omana bay Al-Ghayda?
3755.1 Kidmat Yarub
3756 Neogilla, Neogeiala Roman naval base at Damkot, Damqawt?
3756.1 Khor Kharfot, Kharfout, on wadi Sayq
3757 Bosara, Boseude, Kosara, Koseude al-Maghsil?
3758 Salalah, Raysut
3759 Salalah, al-Baleed, al-Balid, with Neolithic settlement at ad-Dahariz
3760 Moscha portus, Abyssapolis, Sumhuram, below the Dhofar frankincense production area Khor Rori, at the outlet of wadi Darbat, near Taqah
3760.1 Eastern end of sinus Sachalites, Mirbat, 10th c. port near the Dhofar frankincense production area, with many Palaeolithic sites
3761 Asich, Asichon, Ascita, at western end of sinus Sachalites, west of Zenobii insulae Ras Hasik, at western end of Khuriya Muriya bay, west of Khuriya Muriya islands, with many Palaeolithic sites
3761.1 As-Shuwaymiyah Neolithic settlement
3761.2 al-Hallaniyah Neolithic settlement, on Kuria Muria islands
3761.3 Ras Madrakah Neolithic settlement
3762 Serapis insula, Pliny’s Ogyris insula? Ras Dah, on Masirah island, with Neolithic settlements at Marsis & a fort at Jebel Saffaiq
3762.1 Khuwaymah, BA settlement
3762.2 Ras Jibsh, Neolithic settlement
3762.3 Ras Shaqallah, Neolithic settlement
3762.4 Asilah, Aseelah, Neolithic settlement
3762.5 Ras Suwayh, Swaih, Neolithic settlement
3762.6 Ras ar-Ruways, Neolithic settlement
3763 Ras al-Jinz, al-Hawrah
3764 Korodamon Akron Ras al-Hadd
3764.1 Shia, Shiya, Neolithic settlement
3765 Sour, al-Ayjah, Khor al-Hajar Neolithic settlement
3766 Qalhat, near wadi Hilm
3766.1 Bimmah, with BA settlement
3766.2 Qurayat, with BA settlement
3767 Bandar Khairan
3768 Cryptus portus, Amithoscuta, export of copper from Magan country (copper mountain) Muscat, Mascate, with Neolithic settlement at Ras al-Hamra
3769 Batrasava? Dimma Seeb, Sib
3770 al-Suwadi, Sawadi
3770.1 al-Musanah, Masnaah, on R wadi Aysh
3770.2 Omana? Sohar
3771 Port Leupas al-Liwa, Lua, modern Sohar Port
3772 Khor Kalba, with BA settlement, in Sharjah Emirate
3773 Port of Mount Orsa? Khor Fakkan, Chorfakan, in Sharjah Emirate
3774 Bidiya, Badiyah, with BA settlement, in Fujairah Emirate
3775 Omana? Coboea portus? Dibba al-Hisn, in Sharjah Emirate
3776 Asabon, Asabi, Asaborum, Maketa, Mane, Maka Prom. Cape Musandam, Mussendom, with possible shelter at Khor Kumzar?
3776.1 Portus Mochorbae, Port Machorbe? Jazirat al-Ghanam
3777 Rhegma? Regama, Raamah al-Hulaylah, near al-Rams, Rhums, in Ras al-Khaimah Emirate
3778 Tell Kush, at Shimal, Shamal, in Ras al-Khaimah Emirate
3778.1 Jazeerah al-Hamra Neolithic settlement, in Ras al-Khaimah Emirate
3778.2 Jazeerah al-Akaab, Akab Island Neolithic settlement, in Umm al-Quwain Emirate
3779 Ommana, Omana, Omanum emporium? al-Dur, ed-Dur, next to Khor al-Beidah, in Umm al-Quwain Emirate
3779.1 Tell Abraq, in Umm al-Quwain Emirate
3779.2 Muwaihat, al-Hamriyah, with BA settlement, in Ajman Emirate
3780 Jumeirah, al-Qusais, Dubai
3780.1 al-Sufouh, with BA settlement, in Dubai Emirate
3780.2 Ghanadha, with BA settlement, in Abu Dhabi Emirate
3781 Belonging to the country of Magan, Makkan, Makkash, Maka, Qade, export of copper Umm an-Nar, in Abu Dhabi Emirate, connected to the copper-rich Hajar mountains in Oman
3781.1 Marawah island Neolithic settlement, in Abu Dhabi Emirate
3781.2 Sir Bani Yas island, in Abu Dhabi Emirate
3781.3 Dalma island Neolithic settlement, in Abu Dhabi Emirate
3782 Taboca, Cadara, belonging to the archaic Dilmun empire Qatar
3782.1 Umm al-Ma
3782.2 Ras Abaruk, Abrouq, Broog
3783 Port of Gerrha? Chattenia? Attene? belonging to the archaic Dilmun empire al-Uqayr, Port Aqeer, Uqair fort of uncertain date
3784 Gerrha? belonging to the archaic Dilmun empire Al-Hufuf, is not a port but a major trade city, another option is Tell al-Zayer at Thaj
3785 Tylos, Tylus insula, Arados insula on the Leanite bay, centre of the archaic Dilmun empire Qalat al-Bahrain fort
3785.1 Bilad al-Qadim, near al-Khamish and al-Hassam mosques, Bahrain
3785.2 Belonging to the archaic Dilmun empire Saar temple, Bahrain
3785.3 Barbar temple, Bahrain
3785.4 Samahij, Samaheej, Mashmahij, Meshmahig, Bahrain
3786 Ain as Sayh, near al-Khobar
3787 Dammam
3788 Tharro, belonging to the archaic Dilmun empire Darin, on Tarut, Tarout Island
3789 Qatif
3790 Ayn Jawan
3791 Dosariyah
3792 Jabal Berri, Jubail
3792.1 Istriana Possibly in the area of Manifa, Munifah?
3792.2 Mallaba, Mallada Possibly in the area of Ras al-Khafji?
3793 Burgan hill, Koweith
3794 Akarum, Agarum, Ichara, Ikaros, Icarus insula, belonging to the archaic Dilmun empire Tell Khazneh & Tell Sa’ad & Tell Sa’aid, on the isle of Failaka, Koweith
3795 Akarum, Ichara, Ikaros, Icarus insula, belonging to the archaic Dilmun empire al-Khor, al-Khidr, on the isle of Failaka, Koweith
3795.1 Akarum, Ichara, Ikaros, Icarus insula, belonging to the archaic Dilmun empire al-Awazim, on the isle of Failaka, Koweith
3796 Itamos, Tamus portus, belonging to the archaic Dilmun empire? Koweith
3797 Tell Akkaz, Koweith
3798 Umm an-Namel, Koweith
3799 Bahra & Nahdain, Subiyah, Koweith
3800 Teredon, Teriton, Diritotis, Didotis, on R Euphrates, R Arahtu, Marcian’s Adarupolis? Ptolemy’s Adarou? very uncertain location North of Bubiyan island
3801 Apologos, Marcian’s Coromane? Ptolemy’s Koromanis? al-Ubullah? al-Abelah? Bassora?
3802 Forat, on R Pasitigris near ad-Dayr, about 10 km downstreams of Charax
3803 Charax Spasinou, Spasinu Caras, Alexandria, Antiochia, Maisan on the Mesanites Sinus? on R Pasitigris Jebel Khayabir, about 15 km SE of al-Qurna and about 40 km NW of Basra, on R Shatt el-Arab
3804 Lagash, archaic capital of the Sumerian country Tell al-Hiba
3805 Girsu Tell Telloh
3805.1 Nigin, Nina, Nenua Tell Zurghul
3806 Ur, Uri, Sumerian Urim, North Port Tell el-Muqayyar, with “two off-river basins enclosed within the walls of Ur” acc. to Blackman (1982, p92)
3806.1 Ur, Uri, Sumerian Urim, West Port Tell el-Muqayyar, with “two off-river basins enclosed within the walls of Ur” acc. to Blackman (1982, p92)
3806.2 Port of Ur? Tell Abu Tbeirah, 6 km south of Nasiriyah
3806.3 Eridu, Eridou Tell Abu Shahrain
3806.4 Kissik, Kisig, Kuara Tell al-Lahm
3806.5 Jedeidah
3806.6 Kirbasi
3807 Uruk, Orchoe, Erech, Orikut Warka
3807.1 Larsa, Larancha, Laranchon, Biblical Ellasar Tell as-Senkereh, Sankarah, with Grand Canal
3807.2 Badtibira, Patibiri, Pantibiblos, Dûr-gurgurri, on Iturungal canal Tell al-Madineh, Madain
3808 Borsippa, Burs, Dorista? Birs Nimrud
3809 Babylon, Babel Babylon
3809.1 Seleukia ad Tigrim, Seleucia on the Tigris, near Ctesiphon Tell Omar, Umar, near Al-Mada’in
3809.2 Akkad, Agade, archaic capital of the Akkadian country, Diniktum? Tell Muhammad? at confluence of R Tigris and R Diyala
3809.3 Susa, Shushan, Seleucia ad Eulaeum, on R Eulaeus Sush, Suze, located between two rivers: R Karkheh and R Dez-Karun
3809.4 Aginis, on R Eulaeus Somewhere in this area, possibly on this tell?
3809.5 Seleucia ad Hedyphon, Seleukeia Susiana, Solace, Soloke, Surak, on R Hedyphon Ja Nishin? on R Jarrahi, R Maroon, Marun
3810 Lake mentioned by Arrian (8, 42) into which both R Tigris and R Eulaeus flow. Lake Hawr Umm an Niaj, on R Karkheh and R Tigris
3810.1 Hypothetical ancient outlet of R Mogaeus, Mogaios, Mosaios In Shadegan Ponds
3810.2 Muddy shallows mentioned by Nearchus when leaving Margastana island Obviously not a port, but narrow outlet of Musa Bay
3810.3 Margastana insula, at mouth of lake Kataderbis Bandar-e Emam Khomeyni, inside Musa Bay?
3810.4 Taxiana insula, located by Marcian in front of lake Palode, Sinus Pelodes, Sinus Steloas Bandar-e Emam Khomeyni, inside Musa Bay?
3811 R Oroatis, R Arosis, R Shirin R Zoreh, R Hendiyan, R Tab, or on an ancient eastward course of R Karun
3812 R Brizana? R Brisoana? Large river estuary south of Bandar Deylam
3813 Jannaba, on R Rhogonis, Rhogomanis, Rogonis Bandar Ganaweh
3814 Sophtha insula, Arakia insula? Kharg island, with BA settlement & rock-cut tombs
3815 R Granis, Dratinus Outlet of R Hilleh (incl. R Dalaki)
3815.1 Taoke, Temukan, Tamukkan, on R Granis, Dratinus Bardak-Siah Palace, between R Shirin & R Dalaki, near Borazjan, inland palace mentioned by Arrian
3816 Hieratis, at outlet of Heratemis canal Shif, in front of Shif island, at outlet of Angali canal
3817 Antiocheia Persidos? on Mesambria Peninsula? Alexandri Insula? Bushir, Bushahr, on Bushehr peninsula
3818 Port of Liyan, Ionaka? Rishir, Rishahr, Rayshahr, Rivard Ardashir, Bokht Ardeshir, with Portuguese fort
3818.1 Liyan Tepeh Sabzabad, Tul-e Peytul
3819 Hazar-Mardan, Hazar Mardom, Halileh
3820 R Padagrus Bay of Halileh, north of Delvar
3821 R Sitacus R Rodjanh
3822 Ausinza, Ausizan Cape Verdistan, west of Bandar Dayer
3823 Gogana, near R Areon Bataneh, near Bandar Dayer
3824 Siraf, Tahiri Bandar Siraf, near R Kunarak
3825 R Badagra, Bagrada Nayband, Basatin, SE of Haleh, east of Cape Nabon
3826 Apostana Bandar-e Bostanu
3826.1 Below Mount Ochus? near R Dara? Bandar-e Moqam? below mountain top at 1000 m, near river outlet at Bandar-e Nakhilu
3827 pearl fishers’ island Lavan island, near modern oil refinery
3827.1 Huzu
3828 Eas, behind Kaikandros, Cecandrus insula Hendurabi island
3829 Kataia, Cataea insula Kish, Qeys island
3829.1 R Cathrapis, Kathraps near Bandar Charak?
3830 Sisidona, Sidodona, near R Salsos, R Korius? east of Tarsias, Themistias Prom. Berkeh Sofleyn, Bandar Suflin, near R Rud-e Shur in Haraye Khamir protected area? east of Ras Shenas
3831 unnamed insula Greater Tunb island
3832 Anchorage in front of an island devoted to Poseidon Dayrestan bay, in front of Hengam, Angar island
3832.1 Oaracta insula, Oorachtha, Oracta, in front of R Salsos, R Korius BA settlement 2 km south of Ramchah, on Qeshm island, in front of R Rud-e Shur
3832.2 Agedana insula, Sagdana? Ogyris? Larak island, where “red lead” (iron ore) is found
3832.3 BA settlement 6 km NE of Bander-e Laft, on Qeshm island
3832.4 R Achidana near Pol-e Angur?
3833 Organa insula, Jarun island, Ogyris? in front of R Daras? Hormuz island
3833.1 R Adanis near Bandar Abbas?
3834 Harmozeia, Harmozan, Armuzia, near R Anamis, R Saganos Old Hormuz possibly here, on R Minab, R Ibrahemi
3835 Neoptana, Portus Macedonum? on R Hyctanis? South of Bandar Kargan
3836 Karpella Ras el-Kuh Mobarak, Bombareek
3837 Badis, Marcian’s Kanthatis? Caumatis? Kanate? Cape Jask
3837.1 Agrisa? Ommana? Rhogana? Mangrove area west of Surgalm?
3837.2 R Salarus R Sedji, 25 km west of Mohammadabad
3838 Dagaseira, Dagasira Port Lyrdf
3839 Troesi, Troea, Marcian’s Pasis? Khor Galak, on R Fanuj
3840 Samydake, Caumatis, Kanthatis, Kanate Bandar Tang
3840.1 R Samydacus R Nikshahr
3840.2 Pola, Polla insula? Area between Pozm Tiyak and Konarak, where a large island may have been connected to the mainland by a tombolo
3841 Kanasida, Tesa, Tysa, Tyz Tiz, Churbar bay, Chabahar bay
3842 Talmena, Kandriakes, near R Hydrianeus, Hydriacus? Lipar, on Chabahar Pink Lake
3843 Bageia, Bagia Prom. Beris
3844 Kyiza, Kuitza, Guitza Kushat? Arrian mentions anchoring in front of a beach with heavy surf ; Marcian mentions a port, presumably Pasabandar
3845 Alambatera, Alambater, Alabagium Prom. with Ziba, Liba insula Ras Fasta, at Pasabandar, but unidentified Ziba island
3846 Kophas, Kophanta, Gophanta, near R Cophes with Harappan Sutkagen Dor ca. 59 km upstream Jiwani, inside Guttar, Gwatar bay, near outlet of R Dasht Kaur (Marcian erroneously places Carmina insula in this area)
3847 Deren-Obila, Dendrobosa Pishukan (Marcian seems to have inverted Derenobilla and Cophanta)
3848 Barna, Barada, Badara, Balara insula Kuh Batil at Gwadar
3849 Balomus, on R Zorambos, Zorombos R Saie Kaur
3850 Mosarna, Musarna silted-up West of Ras Jaddi, near Pasni and outlet of R Shadi
3851 Kissa, Cissa, Karbis, Carbis, near Harappan Sokhta Koh Pasni, near outlet of R Shadi Kaur
3851.1 Carmina, Karmine, Asthala insula, called Asthea insula by Ptolemy, Nosala insula, Solis insula, Selera insula, Nympharum Cubile Astola, Astalu, Haptalar, island ; acc. to Arrian’s description, Carmina insula is located in the country of Fish-eaters between Cape Jask and Ras Malan, and could thus be here
3852 Kabyla, Kalama Kolpos, in front of Carmina, Karmine insula, also called Nosala insula? Khor Kalmat, near Sokhta Koh
3853 Kolta, Colta Ras Sakani
3854 Bagasira, Pasira Ormara
3854.1 Malana Prom., Maleus Mons Ras Malan
3855 Stobera, on R Tomerus, Tonberus, Tuberus Kund Malir, on R Hingol
3856 Kokala, Cocala, Origala? Oritene? Oraea? Horaia? Ora? port of Alexandria Rhambakia, Rambacia? unlocated anchorage in open sea in front of the shore, possibly at Liari (now inland) near R Titian, Alexandria is possibly located at Uthal on R Kharari?
3857 Kabana, Cabana, Argenuus? unlocated anchorage in open sea in front of the shore, possibly near Sonmiani at outlet of R Porali?
3857.1 Balakot, Kot Bala, near R Winder
3857.2 Pagala, Pagadae, Pagana anchorage in open sea in front of the shore, possibly near Naka Kharari?
3858 R Aarabes, Artabis, Arabius, Nabris, Cabirus, in front of a high desert island Sunera, on R Hub, Hab, in front of Churna, Charna island, near Ras Muari, Cape Monze
3859 Morontobara, Gynaikon Limen, Marogomatrae? Rhapraua? Sindu? Karachi, behind Manora reef
3859.1 second island (offshore) visited by Alexander Ratto Kot? 4-5th c. AD fortress, possibly older. Other possible place: Jaki Bandar (Medieval Lahori Bandar, 24.6300°N, 67.3698°E)
3859.2 Daybul, Debal, on R Sagara, Sakala, Saranga, Sangada, which seem to be used also as placenames by Arrian Banbhore, on ancient western branch of the Indus delta, now Gharo creek
3859.3 Domai, Coralliba insula Possibly in this area? near R Ranpattahni, Ran Pethani
3859.4 Alexandrou Limen, Portus Macedonum, on R Sagapa, Sangada, Sinthos, behind insula Bibacta, Bibaga, Barbarikon, Barbaricum, Barace, Abies Tharro Hill, Kervran suggests that Bibacta insula and Cilluta insula are both located here
3859.5 Cilluta insula, Scillustis, Psiltucis, first island visited by Alexander, Marcian’s Coeamba? Ptolemy’s Coiamba? Makli hill? now inland, near Thatta (Medieval Debal), such a large island must have been seen by Alexander
3860 Krokala, Cocala insula Possibly in this area? near Lake Kalri
3860.1 Koreestis, Coreestis Possibly in this area?
3860.2 Kaumara, Kaumana,Caumara Possibly in this area?
3860.3 Stura, Stoura Possibly in this area?
3860.4 Patala, Pattala, Potana, with Patalene island at the top of the delta of R Sinthos, R Phison, archaic Meluhha Hyderabad? on R Indus, Ganjo Takkar is the only credible island where the Indus could have split into the two main branches forming the delta
3860.5 Alexander’s naval base, on eastern branch of Sinthus, where Leonnatus waited for him ; Marcian’s Rhizana? Lal Daro?
3860.6 Port of Dholavira, on R Saran, on Khadir bet island
3860.61 Pabumath, Harappan settlement
3860.62 Ner, Harappan settlement
3860.63 Juni Kuran, Harappan settlement
3860.64 Canthi, Xilenopolis, Great lake, Samara lake Rann of Kutch?
3860.7 Alexander’s naval base, on eastern branch of Sinthus, from where Nearchus was supposed to leave the country, but he finaly left via the western branch Lakhpat?
3860.71 Todio Timbo, Bhedi, Harappan settlement
3860.72 Navinal, Harappan settlement
3860.73 Shikarpur, Harappan settlement
3860.74 Kanmer, Harappan settlement
3860.75 Surkotada, Harappan settlement
3860.8 Nagwada (IV), Harappan settlement
3860.81 Bagasra, Harappan settlement
3860.82 Kuntasi, Harappan settlement
3860.83 Lakhabaval, Harappan settlement
3861 Isle of Bet Dwarka, at entrance of Gulf of Kutch, Harappan settlement
3861.1 Barake insula, in Baraca sinus, Kanthi sinus, Canthicolpo, Dvaraka Isle of Dwarka, with submerged city at R Gunti outlet. Acc. to Periplus Mar Erythr, Baraca bay (Gulf of Kutch) is very dangerous sailing and ships should stop at its entrance (Dwarka).
3861.11 Nageshwar, Harappan settlement on lake Bhimgaja Talao
3861.2 Meda creek, possibly in front of Harshad Mata temple, near Miyani
3861.3 Kindari creek, near Visawada
3861.4 Bardaxema, Bardaxima Porbandar, on Saurashtra peninsula
3861.5 Monoglossum emporium, at outlet of R Mophidis Mangrol Bara, on R Noli, acc. to Ptolemy, Monoglossum and R Mophides are close to each other, and located between Sinus Canthicolpico (Gulf of Kutch) and Sinus Barigazeno (Gulf of Khambhat, Kambay), south of Bardaxema
3861.6 Somnath, Prabhas Patan, on Triveni Mahasangam creek, on R Hiran
3861.7 Kanjetar Harappan site
3861.8 Diva Dandi lighthouse at Mul Dwarka, near Kodinar, on R Shinghoda
3861.9 Kaj, with Roman amphorae, west of Diu island
3862 Astakapra, Astacampra, on Syresthrene peninsula Hathab, on Saurashtra peninsula, west of Piram Bet island, in Gulf of Khambhat
3862.1 Papica, Papike Prom., on Syresthrene, Syrastra peninsula, west of Baiones insula Ghogha, Gundigar, on Saurashtra peninsula, in Gulf of Khambhat
3862.2 Lothal, on R Bhogavo-Sabarmati, a fresh-water reservoir or a harbour basin?
3862.3 Mehgam, Harappan settlement, on R Narmada
3862.4 Barygaza, Barugaza, Bargosa, on R Namadus Bharuch, on R Narmada
3862.5 Bhagatrav, Harappan settlement, on R Kim
3862.6 Kammoni, Kammanes, Camanes, Orrhotha? on R Nanaguna Kamrej, on R Tapi, Tapti, with other sites at Jokha and Dhatva, Pollet places Kammoni 12 km north at Kim
3862.7 Suppara, Souppara, Supparaka, north of R Gaoris, Goaris Bhatela Talav lake, at Nala Sopara, north of Bassein Creek on R Ulhas
3862.8 Kalliena, Calliana Kalyan, on R Ulhoa, Ulhas, Bahayandar
3863 Elephanta insula, Dounga? near Heptanesia, north of R Binda, Bendas Gharapuri island, near Mumbay, on Thane Creek, Pollet places Dounga 38 km further north at Dongri
3863.1 Semylla, Semulla, Chemulaka, Sibor? Chaul, Revdanda fort, in front of Korlai Fort, on Roha Creek at outlet of R Kundulika
3863.2 Mandagora, Mandargiri, Mandgor Bankot Fort, at outlet of R Savitri
3863.3 Palaepatmae, Palaipatmai Dabhol, on R Vashishthi
3863.4 Melizigara, Milizigeris, Sigerus Jaigarth, on R Shastri
3863.5 Byzantion, Byzantium Vijayadrug Fort? at outlet of R Vaghotan
3863.6 Togarus, Toparon Devgad Fort, at outlet of R Devgad
3863.7 Aurannoboas, Erannoboas, Tyrannosboas Malwan
3863.8 Kouma Velha Goa, on R Mandovi
3863.9 Aigidioi nesos Anjidev, Angediva island, at modern Karwar naval base
3863.91 Chersonesus, in front of Keineitoi Nesos Honavar, in front of Basavaraj Durga island, near outlet of R Sharavati
3863.92 Leuke Nesos Nethrani island, Pigeon island
3863.93 Kalaikarias Udipi, on R Papanashini
3863.94 Nitries, Nitrias, Nitra emporium, Mangarouth? Mangalore? on R Netravati
3863.95 Naura, Naoura, in Limyrike province Kannur, Cannanore
3863.96 Tyndis, Tundis, Cosmas’ Salopatana? Ponnani, at outlet of R Bharathapuzha, or Beypore, at outlet of R Chaliyar
3864 Muziris, Muzuris, Muciri, Cosmas’ Nalopatana? on R Pseudostomi Pattanam, near R Periyar
3864.1 Tropina, Ptolemy’s Podoperura? Cosmas’ Poudopatana? Tripunittura, near Cochin, Kochi
3864.2 Nelcynda, Neacyndi, Nelkunda, Melcynda, Melkunda, Nincylda, Nilcinna Niranam? on R Pampa, with famous St Mary’s Orthodox Church founded by St Thomas in 54 AD. Pollet places it 26 km further north at Kottayam
3864.3 Barace, Bakare, Baccare, on R Baris Thottapally? at outlet of R Pampa
3864.4 Elangkoros, Elancor, Elancorum emporium Kollam, Quilon
3864.5 Pyrron Oros, Red Mount, Red Cliffs, Rufus Varkala
3864.6 Balita, Bambala, Bamala Vizhinjam
3864.7 Komarei, Comari, Comorin Prom., Marcian’s Cory? cape Kanyakumari
3864.8 Kolkhoi, Kolchi, Colchis, near R Solenis Vetrivel Amman temple tank, Korkai, near R Thamirabarani, Tamraparni
3864.9 Mosikouri, Mosicure Tuticorin
3865 Talacori emporium? Manthottam, Mantota, Mahathiththa? in front of Orneon nesos, on Taprobane insula Manthai, near R Aruvi Aru, in front of Mannar island, on Sri Lanka island,
Ptolemy’s Talacori might be placed near the very old Ketheeswaram temple
3865.05 Hippuros? on Taprobane insula Cape Kudiramalai, on Sri Lanka island
3865.1 Margana? on Taprobane insula Uruvelapattna, at outlet of R Kala Oya, on Sri Lanka island
3865.2 Priapidis portus? on Taprobane insula Salavattota, at outlet of R Daduru Oya, near Chilaw, on Sri Lanka island
3865.3 Wattala, at Colombo, on R Kelani Ganga, on Sri Lanka island
3865.4 Odoka, on Taprobane insula Galle, Gimhathitha? on Sri Lanka island
3865.5 Mordi portus Palaesimundum? Salica? on Taprobane insula Gothapabbata, Godapwata, Godavaya, near R Walawe Ganga, on Sri Lanka island
3865.6 Port of Maagrammon, on Taprobane insula Kirinda, port of Tissamaharama, near R Kirindi Oya, on Sri Lanka island
3866 Solis portus? on Taprobane insula Pottuvil? on Sri Lanka island
3866.1 Rhizala portus? on Taprobane insula Peariyakallar? on Sri Lanka island
3866.2 Spatana portus? on Taprobane insula Lankapattana? on Sri Lanka island
3866.3 Nagadiba, Gokanna, Gokarna, on Taprobane insula Trincomalee, near outlet of R Mahavali, on Sri Lanka island
3866.4 Modutti emporium? on Taprobane insula R Pudavaikattu? on Sri Lanka island,
This location agrees with Ptolemy’s coordinates with respect to Talacori emporium
3866.5 Boreum, Boreion Prom., on Taprobane insula Cape Sakkotei, Point Pedro, on Sri Lanka island
3866.6 Jambukolapattana, west of Kankesanthurai, on Sri Lanka island
3867 Saliyur Alagankulam, on R Vaigai, and Devipattinam
3867.1 Chaberis emporium, Kaberis, Cosmas’ Caber, and nearby Nagour, Camara, Kouroula, Thellyr & Nikama, Marallo? Poompuhar, Kaveripattinam, on R Kaveri, Cauvery, with submerged Sangam settlement offshore
3867.2 Karige Karaikadu
3867.3 Podouke, and nearby Souboura Arikamedu, near Puducherry, on R Ariyankuppam
3867.4 Sopatma Mamallapuram, Mahabalipuram, with submerged settlement offshore