Ancient Ports in Egypt & Libya

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Ancient port mentioned by ancient author(s)

Ancient port mentioned by modern author(s) only

Potential ancient harbour, from a nautical point of view

NB Ancient name Modern name
3868 Bethaphou, Boutaphion, near Bitylion, Bittylios, Bytl, Betilium, Ienysos? Tell Temilat & Tell el-Sheikh, & Tell Abu Salima, near Sheikh Zuweid
3868.1 Rinokoloura, Rhinocolura, Ariza? Phakidia & Laura located in this area? el-Arish
3868.2 Ostrakine, Ostracena, near Serbonitis Limen, Sirbonis Limen Isle of el-Felusiyat on Lake el-Bardawil
3869 Kasion, Casius Mons Ras Qasrun, Khatib el-Qals, el-Qels
3869.1 Pentaschoinon, Pentascino on the road between Gerra and Kasion
3869.2 Aphnaion, Aphthites? Aphthaia? unlocated between Gerra and Pentaschoinon
3870 Gerra, Geros, Geras, Skenai also located in this area Tell Mahmudiyeh, Mahammediya, near Pelusion
3870.1 Chabriou Charax, Chabrias, Castra Alexandri also located in this area on the road between Pelusion and Gerra
3871 R Nile, R Aegyptus, navigable between Lake Mareotis and the first cataract (Elephantine island near Assouan) with many ports, among which Coptos (Qift) which was the connection to/from the Red Sea. The Nile Delta contains hundreds of archaeological sites on “tells” and “koms” which have been listed elsewhere (see We mention here the most important sites which are located on the main branches of the Nile and may have offered harbour facilities accessible to sea-ships.
3872 Pelusion, Pelusium, Peluse, Sena, Seyan, Saien, Sin, Per-Amun, Paramoun, Peleos? Ptolemais in Pelusion & Lychnos & Thylax also in this area? Tell el-Farama
3873 Magdolos, on Pelusiac Nile branch Tell el-Herr, el-Heir
3874 archaic Migdol, on Pelusiac Nile branch, Rameses III’s famous Nile Delta Battle (1178 BC) possibly in this area Tell Kedua, Kedwa
3875   Tell el-Louly
3876   Tell el-Ghaba
3877 archaic Tjaru, Tcharou, Zaru, Tharu, on Pelusiac Nile branch, starting point of the “Ways of Horus” to Gaza Tell Heboua (I), Habua, Habwa, with more sites within 2 km SE
3878 Sile, Silu, Sele, nea-Tcharou, on Pelusiac Nile branch Tell Abu Seifa, Abou Seify, near Qantara
3879 Daphnae, Daphnes de Peluse, Tahpanhes, on Pelusiac Nile branch, Startopeda in this area? Tell Defenneh, Defenna, Tahpanhes
3880 Herakleopolis Mikra, Heracleus, Sethroe Tell Belim
3881 Hephaistos, Efestus Sanhur
3882   Minshat Abu Omar
3883 Imet, Senou? on Pelusiac Nile branch Tell Nebesha, Farun
3884   Tell Ibrahim Awad
3885 Pi-Ramesses, Pi-Ramses, Piramesse, with port near main palace, on Pelusiac Nile branch Qantir, port is North of village, famous stables are South
3886 Avaris, Hutwaret, Rowaty, archaic capital city of the Hyksos ; renamed Peru-nefer as from 1550 BC and hosting the naval base of Thoutmosis III and Amenhotep II, on Pelusiac Nile branch Tell el-Dab’a
3887 Phakoussai, Phakoussa, Phacussa, Phaguse, on Pelusiac Nile branch Faqus? Snape (2014) places it at Saft el-Henna
3888 Bekhnu? Dekyt? Tukh el-Qaramus
3889 Isieion? on Pelusiac Nile branch Tell Mufta
3890 Pi Sopdu, Per Soped, Saphthis, on Pelusiac Nile branch Saft el-Henneh, Hinna
3891 Per Atum, archaic Pithom on the Canal of Necho II, Darius I and Ptolemy II, archaic Tjekou Tell el-Retabeh, Retabah, on Wadi Tumilat, near Ismailia Canal
3892 Pithom, Patoumos, Heroonpolis, Heropolis, City of Heroes Tell el-Maskhuta, on wadi Tumilat, near Ismailia Canal, 1 st stela of Darius on Nile to Red Sea canal
3892.1 Serapieion, Daneon Portus? Port of the Danei? Serapeum, 2nd stela of Darius on Nile to Red Sea canal
3892.2 Arsinoe? Mahattat al Kibrit, Kabret, near Chalouf, Shaluf, 3rd stela of Darius on Nile to Red Sea canal, Ptolemy locates Arsinoe at 20′ of latitude north of Clysma
3892.3   Koubri, 4th stela of Darius on Nile to Red Sea canal
3893 Leontopolis South, Ioudaion Stratopedon, Jewish camp, on Boubastic Nile branch Tell el-Yahudiya, Mount of the Jews
3893.1 Helioupolis, Helius, Solis, Berenikes Hormos? Matariya (North Cairo), Heliopolis
3894 Thennesos, on Tanitic Nile branch Tell Tinnis
3895 Tanis, Djanet, archaic D’nt, Sa’nu, Biblic Tsoan, Zoan, port of Pi-Rameses, on the Tanitic Nile branch Tell San el-Hagar
3896 Pharbaitos, Pharbaethos, Sheten, Setennu, on Tanitic Nile branch Horbeit
3897 Boubastis, Bubastis, archaic Pi Ubaste, Pi-Beset, Per Bastet, on Boubastic Nile branch Tell Basta, near Zagazig
3898 Panephysis, on the Mendesian Nile branch el-Manzala
3899 Phernouphis, archaic Ro-Nefer Barnufa, near Tell Tebillah
3900 Mendes, archaic Per-banebdjedet, Djedet, archaic ‘npt, Anpet, on the Mendesian Nile branch Tell el-Ruba
3901 Thmouis, on the Mendesian Nile branch Tell Timaï
3902 Leontopolis North, archaic Taremu, near Sebennytic Nile branch Tell el-Moqdam
3903 Tamiathis, on Bousiric Nile branch Damietta, Dumiat
3903.1   Kom el-Dahab
3903.2 Diospolis Inferior, Pollamonis? archaic Paiuenamon, Sma Behdet Tell el-Balamun
3903.3 Isiospolis, Iscopolis, Istopolis, Isieion, archaic Per Hebite Behbeit el-Hagar
3904 Paralios, Paralus, Paralia, on Paralios Limne, on Sebennytic Nile branch Near Baltim, on Lake Burullus
3905 Sebennytos, archaic Tjebnetjer, on Sebennytic Nile branch Samanud
3906 Bousiris, Kynopolis, on Sebennytic Nile branch Abusir
3907 Natho, on Sebennytic Nile branch Sahgrat el-Kubra
3907.1 Mesedet Tell Mostai, Tell Umm Harb
3908 Athribis, archaic Hut-heri-ib, on Sebennytic Nile branch Tell el-Atrib, near Benha
3908.1 Pachnemounis Kom el-Khanziri
3909 Bouto, Buto, archaic Dep & Pe, Per-wadjet Tell Fara’un, near Ibtu
3909.1   Roman fort at Kom el-Gir
3909.2 Cabasa, Kabasa, on Thermouthiac Nile branch Shabas el-Shuhada
3910 Xoïs Sakha, Djeqapir
3911 Saïs, archaic Sau, Sin, on Thermouthiac Nile branch Sa el-Hagar
3912 Tawa, Taua, Taya Tantah
3913 Onouphis Ano Mahallat Manuf, Menuf
3914 Bolbitine, Perseos Skope & Milesian Wall? on Bolbitine Nile branch Tell Abu Mandour, Kom el-Farah, Burj Rashid, Rosetta
3915 Kanope insula Nelson’s island, near Aboukir, Abu Qir
3915.1 Thonis is the Egyptian name of Heracleion submerged city in the bay of Abu Qir
3915.2 Heracleion is the Greek name of Thonis submerged city in the bay of Abu Qir
3915.3 Pikuat, Canopus, Menouthis? East Canopus, submerged city in the bay of Abu Qir
3915.4 Menouthis? submerged city in the bay of Abu Qir
3916 Schedia, on Alexandria canal & Canopic Nile branch, Menelaites? Menelais? Kom el-Giza, al Karyun, Karioun
3916.1   Kom Difshu
3916.2 Metelis? on Kanopike Limne, near Canopic Nile branch Tell Bisintawy, tell el-Nigili, on former Lake Edku, Idku
3917 Hermopolis Mikra, Dimin-Herou, on Canopic Nile branch near Damanhur
3917.1 Hierakonpolis, Hieraconpolis, on Canopic Nile branch near Damanhur
3918 Naukratis, Naucratis, Pi-emroye, Per-Meryt, on Canopic Nile branch Kom Gajef, Kom el-Gaïef
3918.1 Momemphis, archaic Imaw Kom el-Hisn
3919 Terenouthis Tell Abou Billo
3919.1 Nikiou Zawiyet Razin, Kom Manous
3920 Prosopitis insula unlocated, possibly near Al Qanatir Al Khayriyyah
3920.1 Letopolis, Letus, archaic Khem Ausim
3921 Babylon, Stratonicidi, Kheraha Cairo, at Hanging Church
3922 Rosetjau, Port of King Khafre, Khefren Giza, Gizeh, in front of the Sphinx temple
3923   Maadi, on wadi Degla
3924 Royu, Troyu, Troikon Oros Quarry at Tura, Tora, Tourah North
3925   Quarry at Tura, Tora, Tourah South
3926 Memphis, archaic Inebu-hedj, Aneb-Hedj or White-walls, Djed-Sut, Ankh-Tawy, Men-nefer, Menfe, Noph Kom Tuman
3927 Peru-nefer, port of Memphis, Tyrian camp Mit Rahina, Kom el-Qala
3928 Per-Irer, Perire, famous battle against Sea Peoples won by Merneptah in 1208 BC Somewhere in the Wadi El Natrun area
3929 Psenemphaia, Theroge, South end of ancient Mareotis lake Kom el-Truga SE of Alexandria
3930 Taposiris Mikra El-Mandara, south of Montazah prom.
3931   Roman villa on Gezireh Gabr el-Khour, Miami island, in front of Sidi Bishr prom.
3932 Iuliopolis, Nikopolis, Parembole? Sidi Gabir, Gaber, Sporting
3932.1   Ibrahimieh, Ibrahimyah, quarry and anchorage area
3933 Rhacotis, Rhacotes, Rakhotis Alexandria
3934 Alexandria, Megas Limen, Portus Magnus and its Pharos, home port of Classis Alexandrina fleet Alexandria, also called « Le Phare », The Pharos, includes several now submerged ports, it also includes a drydock (acc. to Athenaeus)
3934.1 Alexandria, Megas Limen, Portus Magnus Royal port near Palace
3934.2 Alexandria, Megas Limen, Portus Magnus Naval base
3934.3 Alexandria, Megas Limen, Portus Magnus, Port of the Emporion, Neapolis? Commercial port
3934.4 Alexandria, Megas Limen, Portus Magnus, Antirhodos royal port Antirhodos royal port incl. a pre-Hellenistic jetty (Rhacotis??)
3934.5 Alexandria, Megas Limen, Portus Magnus, Port of the Caesarium Commercial port
3934.6 Alexandria, Megas Limen, Portus Magnus, Navalia Western ports and shipyards
3934.7 Alexandria, Megas Limen, Portus Magnus, Roman port North-west port, near Qait Bey fortress
3935 archaic port of the isle of Pharos Ras el-Teen, Ras el-Tin, before the heptastadion was built, this was an island quite similar to Tyre, many submerged structures are described by Jondet
3936 Eunostos Dekhela, Dikheila: Alexandria West
3937 Kibotos, connected to Mareoticus lake by a canal port located inside the Port of Eunostos
3938 Portus Mareoticus, Mareotis, connected to Kibotos and to Schedia by a canal Mariout lake-port
3938.1   Mariout lake-port connected to sea by el-Mexx canal
3939 Chersonesos, Bendideum, Bendis, Bendidee? Cape Agami? with large breakwater 230 m offshore of the modern one
3940 Small port discovered in 1909, Dusmai? 2 km SSE of cape Agami, north of ancient quarries at el-Mexx, al-Max, near Dikheila ; Stadiasmus mentions a “harbour for 1000 ships” which could be located here
3941 Myrmex? Didymos insulae? not a port, but islet in front of Abu Talat?
3941.1 On western Lake Mareotis Ancient quarry
3942 Marea, Mareia, Philoxenite, on western Lake Mareotis Qaryat Shakush, near Huwariya, with ancient lighthouse
3943 Nikiou Kome, on western Lake Mareotis “Box-shaped harbour”?
3943.1 On western Lake Mareotis Ancient settlement
3944 Plinthinos, Plinthine, on western Lake Mareotis Kom el-Nogous, near Burg el-Arab, Hellenistic canal-port probably located east of Taposiris’ east jetty
3945 Taposiris Megale, Taposiris Magna, east jetty on western Lake Mareotis Abusir, near Burg el-Arab, Roman canal-port located between east jetty near Plinthine and ancient west bridge over canal
3945.1 Taposiris Megale, Taposiris Magna, west bridge on western Lake Mareotis Abusir, near Burg el-Arab, Roman canal-port located between east jetty near Plinthine and ancient west bridge over canal
3945.2 On western Lake Mareotis Roman villa at Borg el-Arab
3946 Kynos, Cheimo, Chio Kome el-Bordan, about 30 km East of el-Alamein
3947 Glaucum, Glaukos el-Imayid, about 15 km East of el-Alamein
3948 Leucaspis, Cynossema, Antipharis, Antiphrai el-Alamein
3949 Derris, Derras, Derrhon Ras Gibeisa
3950 Comaru near Sidi Abd el-Rahman
3951 Zephyrium Prom. near Ras el-Daba
3952 Pedonia, Pezone, behind Myrmex insulae, Sidonia insula? Mersa Abu Samra, behind Sambra Reef
3953 Trakhea, Tracheia Abou Jerab near Galaj
3954 Pnigeus Akroterion, Pnigeo Ras al-Gharqan, Ras Gregrien, Caesar Beach
3955 Phoenicus, Phoenicunte South of Ras el-Kanayis
3956 Hermaeis, Ermea near Ras el-Kanayis
3957 Leuce, Leuke Akte Ras el-Kanayis, Ras Kanaïs
3957.1 Leuce, Leuke Akte, commercial port Ras el-Kanayis, Ras Kanaïs
3958 Zygris Marsa Bagush, Baqqush, near Disney Beach
3959 Laodanuntium, Ladamantia Marsa Mahadda, near Sidi Haneish
3960 Kallias, Kalamaion, Calamaeo near Almaza Beach Resort
3961 Graeas Gony, Graeasgoni seu Vetulae portus near Garawla
3962 Paretonius, Paraetonium, Ammonia Marsa Matrouh, Matruh, Bates’ island, Geziret el-Yehudiyeh
3963 Delphines & Zephyrium insulae islets in front of Obayed beach, 15 km West of Marsa Matrouh
3964 Apis near Zawyet Umm el-Rakham
3965 Ainesippa insulae, Nesis, Nesoi, Natem, Ampelos? Near Drepanum Prom. Ras Bulaou
3966 Selinous, Selenis, Selenide, Linuda near Azy
3967 Azy, Zagilis Kome Marsa Aasi
3968 Tyndarios, Tauris islets, Darieos Ishailah rocks
3969 Chautaeo, Chettaia Marsa Gargub
3970 Zygis, Zygri, Zygrae near Sheikh el-Bisri
3971 Ainesisphyra, Aenesiphyra, Ennesyphora, Nisisphyra, Nesus Sidi Barrani
3972 Katabathmos, Catabathmus Maior, Plunos, Plynos, Plynus, Tetrapyrgia Sallum, Sailloune, Solloum
3973 Ficu, Syke sandy creek?
3974 Panorme sandy creek?
3975 Eurea sandy creeks?
3976 Petras Magna, Patarrus, Petrante Bardia
3977 Ardanis Prom., Kardamis, Ardanaxes Ras Bu Wushayyikah
3978 Menelaüs, Menelas Ras el-Awrah?
3979 Katanis Prom., Catanis Zawiyat Zanzur
3980   Marsa Gabes
3981 Scythranius, Kyrthanio, Pyrthmanion Marsa el-Afarid, about 30 km East of Tobrouk: sandy creeks
3982   el-Gara, al-Qa’arah
3983 Antipyrgos Tobrouk
3984 Miceris near Zawiyat al-Murassas
3985 Petras Parna, Petrante Parvo, Petras Minor, Petras Mikros, Small port of Petrante Marsa Tarfaia, near Ain al-Ulaymah
3986   Allem Dauhr
3987 Batrachus Wadi ed Sedd
3988 Aedonia insula Jeziret el-Marakeb, Seal island
3989 Paliouros, Paliuro At Tamimi
3990 Platea insula, Platee island now connected to the continent, South of Bombah
3991 Phthia, Phaea Bay of Bombah
3992 Dionysios near Zawiyat Umm Hufayn
3993 Chersoneso, Cherronesos, Antichides-Chersonese Ras el-Tin, Atteen
3994 Aziris, Azarion, Azari, archaic Auza? Marsa al-Chabda Wadi al-Khaleej, el-Chalig
3995 Darnis, Zarine Derna
3995.1   Aleut Berruman, at outlet of wadi bu Msafer, possible Bronze Age anchorage?
3996 Zephyrion Akron Ras Bu Meddad, 8 km West of Derna
3997 Chersis, Xherson, Aphrodisias insula, Lea Veneris? el-Kerchi, Kersa, Chersa islets 15 km NW of Derna
3998 Erythron, Erythre Wadi al-Athrun, el-Atrun, Latrun
3999 Naustathamos, Naustathmum, Odysseus’ stopover in the country of Lotophagoi, Lotus-eaters possibly in this area Ras al-Hilal
4000 Apollonia, port of Cyrene, Kyrene Susah, Soussa, with ancient lighthouse
4001   Sidi Aamer
4001.1   El-Mamloh, with fish processing factory
4002 Phykous, Phycus, Phycunte, Phoinicous El-Hamamah, where submerged remains have been reported
4003 Aptouchou Hieron, Aptoucha al-Haniya, Hanieh, with 2 canals on the western rocks, and fish processing factory on the eastern islet
4004   Roman villa at Gasr el-Hammam
4005 Nausidos, Nausis, Ausigdis? Zenerdis? Gasr Disa, near el-Zerbi
4006 Kainopolis, Cenopolis Maatin el-Agla, Maaten al-Uqla
4007 Ptolemais, port of Barce, Barca Tolmeita, port of al-Marj
4008   Roman villa
4009   Roman villa at el-Bent
4010 Teucheira, Tauchira, Arsinoe, Pentapolis Taukra, Tocra
4011   Roman villa
4012   Bersis
4013   Tansoluch
4014 Hadrianopolis, Kaukalou Kome? Daryanah
4015   Ain Zeina, near Kuwayfiyah
4016 Argoos, Arghous, near Tritonis Palus, Lake Triton, near Berenice Arghous, near Benghazi
4017 Euesperides, Hesperidae, Hesperides Maqbarah Sayidi Abid, Benghazi
4017.1 Berenice, Berenike, port of Euesperides Sidi Khrebish, Benghazi
4018 Rhinis, Rhinon ? 10 km SW of Benghazi
4019 Pitho ? 12 km SW of Benghazi
4020 Theotimaeo near Pitho
4021 Halis, Halai ? 15 km SW of Benghazi
4022 Boreion, Boreum Ras Teyonas, 20 km SW of Benghazi
4022.1   Gasr el-Arid, 22 km SW of Benghazi
4023 Chersis Chersa, Karsa, near Qaryat al-Barakat
4024 Amastoris Bu Sceriba?
4025 Heracleo, Herakleioi Thines Ras Carcura?
4026 Drepanon near Heracleo
4027 Serapeion South of Carcura
4028 Diarhoas, Diarrhoea portus near Sultan?
4029 Attici Phenica, Api? near Sultan
4030   Roman villa at Gasr en Nfeil
4031 Kainon, Cainon, Caeno Zuetina?
4032 Euschoeno near Ajdabiya?
4033 Hyphali insulae, three Pontia insulae? islands near Ajdabiya?
4034 Scopelo, Scopelites, Mysinos insula reefs in front of the beach?
4035 three Pontia insulae? Leukai insulae? Isle of Garah?
4036 Maea, Maia, Gaia insula Isle of Ishaifa?
4037 Astrochonda, Astrochona 30 km NE of New Brega
4038   Tincausari
4039 Corcodeilos, Krokodeilos, Crocodilo 11 km NE of New Brega
4040 Boreum, Borio, Boreion Bu Grada, near New Brega
4041 Antidrepano Prom. 10 km SW of New Brega
4042 Mendrion Marsa al-Brega
4043 Cozynthion Roman villa at Gasr el- Brega
4044 Tiniodiri about 10 km SW of Brega
4045 Ammoniou Pegai, Ammonii fontibus about 17 km SW of Brega
4046 Anabucis near Bishr
4047 Automalax, Automalacis, Euteletos? Roman fort about 10 km West of Bishr
4048 Arae Philaenorum Prom., Philainon Bomoi, Banadedari border between Cyrenaica and Africa, near fort of Bir Umm el-Garanigh
4049 Tugulus about 11 km NW of the Ras Lanuf oil terminal
4050 Turris and Taberna As Sidr
4051 Hippou Akra Prom. Ras el-Ihudia?
4052 Zacazama near Bin Jawad
4053 Aubereo, Ad Capsum Ultimum Sidi Beheri, about 20 km West of Bin Jawad
4054 Ad Palmam near Marsa al-Uwayja
4055 Tramaricio at 31° of latitude
4056 Aulazon Aulazon
4057 Eperos, Esperis near the remains of Mintaqat Wadi Harawah
4058 Charax, Corax, Coarce, Iscina Medina Sultan
4059 Ad Speluncas about 10 km West of Sultan
4060 Zure about 20 km East of Syrte
4061   Several Roman villas near Jabiat Escout
4062 La Tour d’Euphrantas, Euphrantas’ Tower, Macomades Selorum Syrte, Sirte
4063 Putea Nigrorum Several Roman villas near Qbeba
4064 Dysopo, Astiagi about 30 km West of Syrte
4065 Praetorium? Several Roman villas about 60 km West of Syrte
4066 Aspis, Aspide, Ad Ficum Bwayrat al-Hasun, about 80 km West of Syrte
4067 Macomaca Melfa
4068 Taricheiai, Tarichiis ? at the East of Misrata
4069 Cephalai, Cephalis Prom., Thubactis, Tubactis Misrata, Misurata
4070   Marsa Gezirah near Misrata
4071 Simnana about 10 km West of Misrata
4072 Nivirgi Tabernae about 30 km West of Misrata
4073 Sugolin, Seggera Roman villa at Zliten
4074 Kinyps, on R Cinyps Wadi Caam, about 10 km West of Zliten
4075   Roman villa
4076 Leptis Magna, Lepcis Magna, Lepcitani Septimiani Leptis Magna, Lepcis Magna, with ancient lighthouse, on wadi Lebda
4077 Leptis Magna, Lepcis Magna not “Magna” anymore
4078 Neapolis, Leptis, Hermaion, Hermaeum Prom, archaic Lpqay not yet “Magna”
4079 archaic Auza? Roman villa at Homs
4080 Ad Palmam Many Roman villas on the coast North of Homs
4081 Gaphara, Graphara, Taphra Gaphara
4082 Amaraea 10 km West of Gaphara
4083 Megerthis, Megradi 20 km West of Gaphara
4084   Several Roman villas near Kassala
4085 Oea, Makar Oeat, Macaraia, Amaraea Tripoli
4086   Roman villa at Gargaresc
4087 Assaria al-Mayah near As Zaouiyah
4088 Sabratha, Sabratta, Zarathra, Abrotonon, Abrotone, Alathres Sabratah, central promontory
4089 Sabratha Sabratah, reef with settlement
4090 Sabratha Sabratah, submerged breakwater
4091 Sabratha Sabratah, quay
4092 Ad Ammonem Mellita, near oil terminal
4093 Locris, Locroi Zuwarah
4094 Casas Zuara
4095 Gypasaria Taberna near the airport of Zuwarah
4096 Pisindon, Pisida Abu Kammash, 25 km from Tunisia