Indian Ocean & Gulf

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Ancient port mentioned by ancient author(s)

Ancient port mentioned by modern author(s) only

Potential ancient harbour, from a nautical point of view

NB Ancient name Modern name
3710 Prasum prom. Cabo Delgado? in front of the Commore islands
3710.1 Quiloa Kilwa Kisiwani island & Songo Mnara island, this area of Swahili culture might be beyond the southern limit of pre-islamic trading ports as archaeology has not (yet?) found any older artefacts
3711 Rhapta, Rapta, capital city of the country of Azania, Panchea archaeo finds at Kibiti (Chami, 1998), on R Rufiji, but Dar es Salaam remains a good candidate if Menuthias is Pemba island
3712 Mafiaco insula Ukunju cave, on Juani-Mafia island
3713 Menuthias insula, Island of the Sun, Panara, in country of Azania Unguja Ukuu, on Zanzibar island ; note that Ptolemy means Madagascar when speaking about Menuthias insula
3714 Pemba island, is also a candidate for Menuthias insula
3715 Pyraloi insulae, in country of Azania Lamu archipelago, with Manda, Pate & Lamu islands
3715.1 Toniki, Tonice Prom., in country of Azania Burgabo, Burgao? on R Burgabo
3715.2 Gondal? Kismayo, Kismaayo, near Goobweyn on R Juba
3716 Nicon, Nikon, in country of Azania Barawa, Brava?
3717 Essina, in country of Azania Merka, Marka? Gendershe, Gonderscia?
3718 Sarapion Prom., in country of Azania Mogadishu? Warsheikh?
3719 Opone: Pwenet, Pwene, Pouen, Opone, Ophir?? Land of Punt? Ras Hafun, Xaafuun, other possible locations for Punt are Mundus, Mosylium and Adulis
3720 Pano Bay of Chori Hordio? (or Ras Binna?)
3721 Cape Tabae, Tabai Ras Binna? now silted up (or Ras Shenarif, Chenarif, where no shelter is to be found?)
3722 Dioscoridis insula, Panchaia, Fortunate islands Isle of Socotra, Suqutra
3723 Hajriya Hadiboh on Socotra island
3724 Kosh on Socotra island
3725 Akroterion, Aronaton, Tera Aromatica, Aromatifera Regio, Market and Cape of Spices, Cap des Aromates Possibly Daamo, Damo, 5 km west of Cape Guardafui, Ras Asir, Ras Caseyr
3726 Acana, Acannae, Daphnon Magnum, Cinocephali waters Ras Alula, Bandar Ululah, Caluula
3727 Cape Elephas, Elephantas Ras Felug, Filuk, Filuch, el-Fil
3728 Cobe Xabo, Abot fort?
3729 Daphnon Parvum Bandar Muriyeh, Murcaayo
3730 Psygmus, Psyglatus Qandala, Candala
3731 Mosylium, Mosylon Emporion, below the Karkaar frankincense production area Elayo, Elayu? The black volcanic cliffs may have been taken for a promontory. Another possible location is Bosasso, 33 km East of Elayo. Also possible is Ras Hantara, 78 km NE of Elayo, below the Karkaar frankincense production area
3732 Mundus, Mondou Emporion, below the Cal Madow frankincense production area, Land of Punt? Ophir?? Salweyn, near Heis, Xiis. Other possible locations for Punt are Adulis and Opone
3733 Khor Shoreh, Shoora
3734 Malao Berbera, can be seen as the port of Hargeisa (inland) where Neolithic cave paintings have been found
3734.1 Bulhar, on R Issutuggan
3735 Avalitae, Avalites, Abalites, Aualis Zeila, Saylac, in Somalia, 50 km East of Djibouti. Avalites seems to be located with some certainty at Zeila (in Somalia)  on a former island protected by a sand spit
3736 Port of Isis Djibouti? The Port of Isis is at ten days of navigation under oar (500-1000 km) from Adulis according to Pliny, which leads near Djibouti (at 660 km) with its two islands located just in front of the port, as indicated by Pliny
3737 Guinni Koma, ile du Diable, inside Ghoubbet el-Karab, Monfreid’s Gubet Karab
3738 Obock
3739 Khor Omeira, Monfreid’s Kor Omeira
3740 Ras Imran
3741 Eudaimon Arabia, Porto, Adane Aden
3742 Mesala al-‘Asala, am-‘Asala
3743 Abisama, Ambisama, Ebisma Ras Sanbah?
3744 Bal Haf, Balihaf
3745 Qana, Cana, Qani, Kane, port of the Hadramawites Husn al-Ghurab (“Crow’s fort”, Fort du Corbeau), at Mawiyat, near Bir Ali
3746 PM: Saba, Sheba, ancient capital city of Sabean kingdom PM: Marib
3747 Ras Majdahah
3748 Khor al-Mukalla
3749 al-Shirh
3750 Trulla, Tralla portus? Ras Sharma
3751 Thialemath? al-Musayn’a
3752 Tritus, Tretos, Pretos portus? Ras Sharwayn
3753 Khaisat, South of Ras Fartak
3754 Syagrus, Syagros, Suagros Khalfat, on wadi Khalfut, North of Ras Fartak
3755 Ausara, Omana bay Al-Ghayda?
3756 Neogilla, Neogeiala Roman naval base at Damkot, Damqawt?
3757 Bosara, Boseude, Kosara, Koseude al-Maghsil?
3758 Salalah, Raysut
3759 al-Baleed
3760 Moscha, Abyssa, Sumhuram, below the Dhofar frankincense production area Khor Rori, at the outlet of wadi Darbat, near Taqah
3761 Asich, Asichon, Ascita, at western end of sinus Sachalites Ras Hasik, at western end of Khuriya Muriya bay
3762 Serapis insula Mazirah island
3763 Ras al-Jinz, al-Hawrah
3764 Korodamon? Coromane? Ras al-Hadd
3765 Sour
3766 Qalhat, near wadi Hilm
3767 Bandar Khairan
3768 Cryptus portus, Amithoscuta, export of copper from Magan country (copper mountain)? Muscat, Mascate
3769 Batrasava? Dimma Seeb, Sib
3770 al-Suwadi, Sawadi
3770.1 Sohar
3771 Port Leupas al-Liwa, Lua
3772 Khor Kalba
3773 Port of Mount Orsa Khor Fakkan, Chorfakan
3774 Dibba al-Hisn
3775 port of Goboea Cuscan according to Forster, Haffah Bay??
3776 Asabon, Asabi, Asaborum, Maketa, Mane, Maka Prom. Jazirat al-Ghanam, Cape Musandam, Mussendom
3777 Port Machorbe al-Rams, Rhums
3778 Rhegma, Regama, Raamah? Kush, near Ras el-Khaïmah
3779 Ommana, Omana, Omanum emporium? belonging to the archaic Dilmun empire? al-Dur, ed-Dur, next to Khor al-Beidah, in Umm al-Quwain Emirate
3779.1 Belonging to the country of Magan? Makkan, Makkash, Maka, Qade Tell Abraq
3780 Jumeirah, Dubai
3781 Belonging to the country of Magan? Makkan, Makkash, Maka, Qade, export of copper Umm al-Nar, connected to the copper-rich Hajar mountains in Oman
3782 Taboca, Cadara, belonging to the archaic Dilmun empire Qatar
3783 al-Uqayr, Uqair fort of uncertain date
3784 Gerrha, belonging to the archaic Dilmun empire? Tell al-Zayer at Thaj, is not a port but a major trade city with a port probably located somewhere between Ras Tanura and Jubail
3785 Tylos, Tyrus insula, Arados insula on the Leanite bay, centre of the archaic Dilmun empire Qalat al-Bahrain fort
3785.1 Bilad al-Qadim, near al-Khamish and al-Hassam mosques, Bahrain
3785.2 Saar temple, Bahrain
3785.3 Barbar temple, Bahrain
3786 Ain as Sayh, near al-Khobar
3787 Dammam
3788 belonging to the archaic Dilmun empire? Darin, on Tarout island
3789 Qatif
3790 Ayn Jawan
3791 Dosariyah
3792 Jabal Berri
3793 Burgan hill, Koweith
3794 Akarum, Ichara, Ikaros, Icarus insula, belonging to the archaic Dilmun empire Tell Khazneh & Tell Sa’ad & Tell Sa’aid, on the isle of Failaka, Koweith
3795 Akarum, Ichara, Ikaros, Icarus insula, belonging to the archaic Dilmun empire al-Khor, al-Khidr, on the isle of Failaka, Koweith
3796 Itamos, Tamus portus, belonging to the archaic Dilmun empire? Koweith
3797 Tell Akkaz, Koweith
3798 Umm an-Namel, Koweith
3799 Subiyah, Koweith
3800 Teredon, Teriton, Diritotis, Didotis very uncertain location North of Bubiyan island
3801 Apologos, on R Euphrates very uncertain location near as-Zubayr
3802 Forat, on R Pasitigris near ad-Dayr, about 10 km downstreams of Charax
3803 Charax Spasinou, Spasinu Caras, Alexandria, Antiochia, Maisan on the Mesanites bay? on R Pasitigris Jebel Khayabir, about 15 km SE of al-Qurna and about 40 km NW of Basra, on R Shatt el-Arab
3804 Lagash, archaic capital of the Sumerian country Tell al-Hiba
3805 Girsu Tell Telloh
3805.1 Nigin, Nina, Nenua Tell Zurghul
3806 Ur, Uri, Sumerian Urim, North Port Tell el-Muqayyar, with “two off-river basins enclosed within the walls of Ur” acc. to Blackman (1982, p92)
3806.1 Ur, Uri, Sumerian Urim, West Port Tell el-Muqayyar, with “two off-river basins enclosed within the walls of Ur” acc. to Blackman (1982, p92)
3806.2 Port of Ur? Tal Abu Tbeirah, 6 km south of Nasiriyah
3807 Uruk, Orchoe, Erech, Orikut Warka
3808 Borsippa, Burs, Dorista? Birs Nimrud
3809 Babylon, Babel Babylon
3809.1 Akkad, Agade, archaic capital of the Akkadian country, Diniktum? Tell Muhammad? at confluence of R Tigris and R Diyala
3809.2 Susa, Shushan, Seleucia ad Eulaeum, on R Eulaeus Sush, Suze, located between two rivers: R Karkheh and R Dez-Karun
3809.3 Aginis, on R Eulaeus possibly in this area
3810 Hypothetical ancient outlet of R Mogeus, Mogaios, Mosaios Near modern outlet of R Karun
3810.1 Sinus Pelodes, Sinus Steloas, located by Marcian between R Mogaeus and R Eulaeus, with a Taxiana insula Possibly in this area which is now being filled with sediment from R Jarrahi
3810.2 Hypothetical ancient outlet of R Eulaeus, Ulai, Ulaya, flowing through Susa R Eulaeus is usually identified with R Karkheh, but could also be R Dez-Karun as both rivers lead to Susa
3810.3 Muddy shallows Obviously not a port, but shoal possibly located at an ancient outlet of R Jarrahi
3810.4 Taxiana insula, located by Marcian in front of lake Palode Dara island?
3810.5 Margastana insula, at mouth of lake Kataderbis possibly in this area
3811 Mahruban, on R Oroatis, R Arosis, R Shirin submerged city, on R Hendiyan, R Tab, or on an ancient eastward course of R Karun
3812 Siniz, on R Brizana? Bandar Siniz, South of Bandar Daylam
3813 Jannaba Bandar Ganaweh
3813.1 R Rhogonis, Rhogomanis, Rogonis Darreh Gap, near Bandar Rig
3814 Sophtha insula, Arakia insula? Kharg island
3815 Tawwaj, aka Tuj Zirah, on R Shapur, upstream of R Rud-e Hilleh
3815.1 Temukan, Taoke, on R Granis, Dratinus Bardak Siah Palace, at Doroudgah on R Dalaki, near Borazjan
3815.2 Tul-e Khandagh fortress, at Deh Qa’ed
3815.3 Charkhab Palace, at Borazjan
3815.4 Khosh Ab, Khoshaab
3815.5 Isavendeh, Eisovand
3816 Shif, in front of Shif island
3817 Mesambria, port of Liyan Bushir, Bushehr
3817.1 Antiocheia Persidos? Bushir, or near Bushir
3818 Liyan, Ionaka? Tepeh Sabzabad, Tol-e Peytul, near Rishir, Rishahr, Rayshahr, Rivard Ardashir, Bokht Ardeshir
3819 R Padagrus Bay of Halileh, north of Delvar
3820 Hieratis, Heratemis South of Delvar
3821 R Sitacus, R Brisoana? R Rodjanh
3822 Ausinza, Ausizan Cape Verdistan, west of Bandar Dayer
3823 Gogana, near R Areon Bataneh, near Bandar Dayer
3824 Siraf, Tahiri Bandar Siraf, ancient city wall on the beach between R Kunarak (west) and R Shilou (east)
3825 R Badagra, Bagrada Large bay south of Assalouyeh and north of cape Nabon
3825.1 Apostana near Teban beach?
3826 Ochus near Bostano?
3827 pearl fishers’ island Lavan island
3828 Eas, behind Kaikandros, Cecandrus insula Hendurabi island
3829 Kataia, Cataea insula Kish, Qeys island
3830 Sisidona, Sidodona, Themistias Prom.? Bandar Shenas
3831 unnamed insula Greater Tunb island
3832 Oaracta insula, Oorachtha, Oracta, Ogyris? in front of R Salsos, R Korius Qeshm island, in front of R Rud-e Shur
3832.1 Agedana insula, Sagdana? Larak island, where “red lead” (iron ore) is found
3833 Organa insula, Jarun island, in front of R Daras? Hormuz island
3834 Harmozeia, Harmozan, Armuzia, near R Anamis, R Saganos R Minab, R Ibrahemi, near Kolahi
3835 Neoptana, Portus Macedonum? on R Hyctanis? near Bandar e-Kargan
3836 Karpella Ras el-Kuh Mobarak, Bombareek
3837 Badis Cape Jask
3837.1 R Salarus 25 km west of Mohammadabad
3838 Dagaseira, Dagasira Port Lyrdf
3839 Troesi, Troea Khor Galak
3840 Samydake, Caumatis, Kanthatis, Kanate Tang
3840.1 R Samydacus
3840.2 Pola, Polla insula? Area between Pozm Tiyak and Konarak, where a large island may have been connected to the mainland by a tombolo
3841 Kanasida, Tesa, Tysa, Tyz Tiz, Churbar bay, Chabahar bay
3842 Talmena, Kandriakes, near R Hydrianeus, Hydriacus? Lipar, on Chabahar Pink Lake
3843 Bageia, Bagia Prom. Beris
3844 Kyiza, Kuitza, Guitza Kushat? Arrian mentions anchoring in front of a beach with heavy surf ; Marcian mentions a port, presumably Pasabandar
3845 Alambatera, Alambater, Alabagium Prom. with Ziba, Liba insula Ras Fasta, at Pasabandar, but unidentified Ziba island
3846 Kophas, Kophanta, Gophanta, near R Cophes Jiwani, inside Guttar, Gwatar bay, near outlet of R Dasht Kaur (Marcian erroneously places Carmina insula in this area)
3847 Deren-Obila, Dendrobosa Pishukan (Marcian seems to have inverted Derenobilla and Cophanta)
3848 Barna, Barada, Badara Kuh Batil at Gwadar
3849 Balomus, on R Zorambos, Zorombos R Saie Kaur
3850 Mosarna, Musarna silted-up West of Ras Jaddi, near Pasni and outlet of R Shadi
3851 Kissa, Cissa, Karbis, Carbis Pasni, near outlet of R Shadi Kaur
3851.1 Carmina, Karmine, Asthala insula, called Asthea insula by Ptolemy, Nosala insula, Solis insula, Nympharum Cubile Astola, Haptalar, island ; acc. to Arrian’s description, Carmina insula is located in the country of Fish-eaters between Cape Jask and Ras Malan, and could thus be here
3852 Kabyla, Kalama Kolpos, in front of Carmina, Karmine insula, also called Nosala insula? Khor Kalmat
3853 Kolta, Colta Outlet of R Basol?
3854 Bagasira, Pasira Ormara
3854.1 Malana Prom., Maleus Mons Ras Malan
3855 Stobera, on R Tomerus, Tonberus, Tuberus Kund Malir, on R Hingol
3856 Kokala, Origala? Oritene? Horaia? Oraea? Ora? Bardaxima? Argenuus? port of Alexandria Rhambakia, Rambacia? unlocated anchorage in open sea in front of the shore, near outlet of R Phor, Alexandria is possibly located at Khandewari (west end of Miani Hor)? or at Uthal on R Kharari (now inland)?
3857 Kabana, Cabana unlocated anchorage in open sea in front of the shore, south of Miani Hor lagoon (outlet of R Porali)? or near Siranda lake (now inland)?
3857.1 Pagala, Pagadae, Pagana anchorage in open sea in front of the shore, possibly near Naka Kharari?
3858 R Aarabes, Artabis, Arabius, Nabris Cabirus Sunera, on R Hub, Hab, in front of Churna, Charna island, near Ras Muari, Cape Monze
3859 Morontobara, Gynaikon Limen, Marogomatrae? Rhapraua? Karachi, behind Manora reef
3860 Sakala, Sacala unlocated, near Bambhore?
3860.1 Cilluta insula, Scillustis, Psiltucis Makli hill, now inland
3860.2 second island (offshore) visited by Alexander Shah Aqeeq hill, now inland
3861 Saranga, Sarapa, Sorofages unlocated, near Golarchi?
3862 Domai, Coralliba insula near Talhar?
3863 Alexandrou Limen, Portus Macedonum, on R Sagapa, Sangada, Sinthos, behind insula Bibacta, Bibaga, Barbarikon, Barbaricum, Barace, Abies near Tando Ghulam Ali?
3863.1 Krokala, Cocala insula west of Jhuddo?
3864 Canthi, Xilenopolis, Great lake, Samara lake, Nearchus’ naval base, on eastern branch of Sinthus swamp near Goth Sikaryari?
3865 Patala, Pattala, Potana, on R Sinthos, archaic Meluhha empire? Possibly NE of Nasarpur, other possibilties: Thatta? Hyderabad? Brahminabad near Sanghar? on R Indus